Interpretation of Umar and his followers (2023)

Table of Contents
Interpretation of Umar and his followers Thursday's disaster The real fact of this catastrophe The excuses of the resistance Refute excuses in other ways Shaykh al-Bishri admires what we said Treaty of al-Hudaybiya The event in detail Aggressiveness of the Quraysh and the wisdom of the Prophet (sws) Fear of polytheists and call for peace Umar despises the terms of the truce fulfillment of the peace treaty the fruit of peace Return to Medina Liberation was promised to the oppressed The Prophet's prayer for Ibn Ubayy the hypocrite The Prophet's prayers for some of the believers Heaven is for monotheists The Pleasure of Hajj temporary marriage change azan "Come to the best deeds" Change in the Divorce Code Tarawih Gebet The Funeral Prayer Legacy between brothers and sisters lack of inheritance Inheritance from grandfather if there are siblings common heritage the share of the heirs The inheritance of his sister's son's uncle Iddah of a pregnant woman monitoring Marry a missing man's wife sell slaves Need tayammum when there is no water Two additional rak'as after Asr prayer Relocation of the Temple of Abraham weep for the dead The Prophet (s) confirms the truthfulness of Hatib The Book of the Prophet for his Emirs Share the charities The Prophet (s) commands Umar to hide his faith Fasting in early Islam ban wine The Prophet (s) forbids killing al-Abbas and others Taking ransom from Badr prisoners Prisoners of Hunayn The Refugees of Jihad monitoring Der Prophet (s) befiehlt seinen Gefährten, Abu Sufyan in Uhud nicht zu antworten Espionage and its prohibition Legislation limiting women's dowries Change legal sanctions Take illegal ransom punishment for adultery Annulment of al-Mugheera's sentence His severity towards Jabala bin al-Abham His severity towards Abu Huraira His severity towards Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas His harshness towards Khalid bin al-Waleed Beat up and banished Lost' Exilando Nasr bin Hajjaj Exceeding the legal penalty with your child Cutting down the Al-Hudaybiya tree Umm Hani complains to the Prophet (sws) against him. The Day of Consultation (an-Najwa) Your leniency to Mo'awiya Your illegal order Invention in Shura

Interpretation of Umar and his followers

Thursday's disaster

It was in the eleventh year of the Hijra during the Prophet's illness that led to his death.

(The Prophet's death was on Monday; four days after this event.)

The real fact of this catastrophe

The authors ofSihah(Hadith books) and historians have detailed this event in their books and considered it as one of the true facts.

Al-Bukhari mentioned(In his Sahih, volume 1, chap. "Knowledge" and Volume 4, Chap. "The patient".)a narration narrated from Ubaydillah bin Abdullah bin Mas'ood that Ibn Abbas said:

“When the Prophet (sws) was dying, there were some men in his house, Umar among them. The Prophet (s) said: "Come on! Let me write a book so you're never lost afterwards. Umar said: The Prophet (sws) was overwhelmed with sorrow. We have the Quran. The Book of Allah is enough for us.”The men of the house disagreed. Some of them said: “Approach the Prophet! Let him write a book for you, after that you will never get lost again. Some of them repeated what Umar had said. When they made a lot of noise and disagreed, the Prophet (sws) said to them: “Go!” Abdullah bin Mas'ood said: “Ibn Abbas used to say: “It was the great calamity when their shouting and disagreement prevented the Prophet (sws) from writing this book.”

Muslim mentioned this tradition in hissahih, Vol.2. Ahmad also mentioned this in hisMusnad(Bd.1 S.325.)and all historians too, but they somehow changed the text. Umar's actual word was "...the Prophet (s) is delusional," but they used it"The Prophet (sws) was overcome with sorrow"to soften Umar's terrible statement.

Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Abdul Aziz al-Jawhari erwähnte emKitab as-Saqifa(Como em Sharh Nahjul Balagha, vol. 2 S.20.)that Ibn Abbas had said: "When the Prophet (sws) was about to die, while some men were in the house, with Umar among them, he said:

"Bring me an inkwell and a piece of paper to write a book for you, after that you will never be lost again." 'Umar said a word meaning that the Prophet (sws) was overcome with grief and then added added: “We have the Koran. The Book of Allah is enough for us.” The men of the house disagreed and quarreled. Some of them said: “Come closer! Let the Prophet (sws) write a book for you.” Some others said what Umar had said. When they made a lot of shouting and disagreements, the Prophet (sws) got angry and said to them: "Go!"

It is clear from this narration that historians have quoted the meaning of Umar's words and not the exact words he said.

When the narrators narrated the exact words of the man who defied the Prophet (sws), they did not mention that man's name. Al-Bukhari said in hissahih:(Bd.2 S.118)

"Qubaysa narrated from Ibn Uyayna from Salman al-Ahwal of Sa'eed bin Jubayr that Ibn 'Abbas had said: 'Thursday... and what a Thursday!' He wept until his tears fell on the ground and then he said: ' The Prophet (sws) became very ill on Thursday. He said: "Bring me a piece of paper to write a book for you, after that you will never be lost again."They (the men who were in the Prophet's house) argued, while no one should argue before a Prophet. They said: "The Messenger of Allah is delirious." The Prophet (s) said: "Leave me alone! What I am is better than what you give me credit for. As he was about to die, he commanded three things: "Expel the polytheists from Arabia, reward the delegations as I have rewarded them..." and I have forgotten the third.“. (The third thing was definitely the command that the Prophet (sws) wanted to write to his Ummah so as not to get lost afterwards, but politics forced the narrators to pretend to have forgotten, like the Mufti of the Hanafi ( in thrush) Shaykh Abu Sulayman Haj Dawood ad-Dada said.)

This is another tradition mentioned by Muslim in hissahih, by Ahmad in hisMusnad289,and the other narrators. Muslim mentioned in hissahih, Individually.

"At will" the tradition otherwise transmitted from Sa'eed bin Jubayr that Ibn 'Abbas had said: "Thursday and what is Thursday!" His tears began to flow down his face and then he said: "The Prophet (s ) said: "Bring me a slide and an inkwell (or a slate and an inkwell) so that I can write for you a book from which you will not deviate at all." They said:"The Messenger of Allah is delirious."(This tradition with the same wording was mentioned by Ahmad in his Musnad, vol. 1, p. 355 and by other hadith scholars.)

He who studied the "misfortune" inSihahYou well know that the first one to say "The Prophet (sws) is delirious" wasUmarand then those present, who had accepted his opinion, imitated his situation. You have seen above the saying of Ibn Abbas in the first narration "... the men of the house quarrelled. Some of them said: “Come closer! Let the Prophet (sws) write for you a book that you will never deviate from” and some others said as Umar had said. This is "The Prophet (s) is delusional".

At-Tabarani mentioned a tradition in his bookal-Awsat(Canzol Ummal, vol. 3 S.138.)that Umar had said:

"When the Prophet (sws) fell ill, he said: 'Bring me a sheet of paper and an inkwell to write a book for you, after that you will never get lost again.' The women behind the curtain said: 'Do you hear? not what the Messenger of Allah says?” I (Umar) said (to the women): “You are like the women of Yousuf (Prophet Joseph). When he gets sick, blink, and when he gets well, ride on his neck.” The Prophet (sws) said: “Leave them (women) alone. They are better than you."

You see here that they disobeyed the command of the Prophet (sws). If so, they would have been safe from distraction. If only they had been content to disobey the Prophet (s) and not reject his command when they said: "The Book of Allah is enough for us" as if he did not know the position of the Book of Allah among them or as if they were more aware of the book and its values ​​than it!

And I want them to be happy with all of this and not surprise him with their terrible word"The Messenger of Allah is delirious"while he was dying! With what a word they wanted to say goodbye to their prophet! They disobeyed him by pretending that the Book of Allah is enough! Had they not heard how the Book of Allah proclaimed day and night:

"And whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and what he forbids you, turn away." (Quran 59:7)

eas if with the words: "theThe Messenger of Allah is delusional" had not read the words of Allah:

"Verily, it is the word of an honorable messenger. The power processor that has pride of place in the Lord of the Domain. One who is obedient and faithful in trust. And his companion did not go mad." (Quran 81:19-22)

“Surely it is the word brought by an honored messenger. And it is not the word of a poet; little is what you believe. Not the word of a fortune teller; little do you care. It is a revelation from the Lord of the Worlds" (Quran 69:40-43)

"Your companion does not err, nor does he stray. Nor does he speak out of desire. It is nothing but revelation that is revealed. The Lord of mighty power taught him" (Quran 53:2-5)

They knew that the Prophet (s) especially wanted to certify the Caliphate of 'Ali (as) and the infallible Imams of his descendants with a written covenant and therefore prevented him from writing this book, as the second Caliph Umar later confirmed by from a had stood discussion between him and Ibn Abbas.(Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Band 3, S. 114.)

If you think about the saying of the Prophet (sws): "Come on! Let me write you a book by which you will never go astray” and of his saying in the tradition of Thaqalayn:“I have left you what, if you continue, you will never deviate; the Book of Allah and my descendants"You will know that the purpose of the two words is the same. The Prophet (sws) wanted to write down for them during his illness the details of what he commanded in the tradition of Thaqalayn.

The Prophet (s) had given up writing this book because the terrible words of these men forced him to give up as there would be no use for his book. This would cause turmoil and discord according to him as they would argue about whether or not his book was from his delusion. They disagreed and quarreled and made a great deal of noise in front of him, and so he had no choice but to say:"Get out!"

If he had insisted on writing this book, they would have insisted on saying, "The Messenger of Allah is delusional," and then his followers would do their best to prove that the Prophet (sws) was indeed delusional, and they would invent many stories. and stories to refute this book and refute those who believed in it.

Therefore, wisdom led the Prophet (sws) not to write this book so that these people and their followers would not open a loophole to criticize the prophecy, Allah forbid! The Prophet (s) found that Imam 'Ali (as) and his followers would submit to the contents of this book whether it was written or not and that others would not consider or act on it whether it was written or not not.. not. So wisdom decided to abandon this book as it would lead to resistance and uproar.

The excuses of the resistance

Sheikh Saleem al-Bishri, durch einige dermuraja'ats(disputes) between him and me in Egypt in 1329 AH. and afterwards he justified this event by saying:

"When the Prophet (sws) ordered his Companions to bring a paper and an inkwell, he may not have intended to write anything, but only wanted to inform them, and so Allah inspired Umar among the Companions with the Prophet's intention ( s.) and thus prevented the others from bringing paper and inkwell. Therefore, we must consider this avoidance of 'Umar as one of his assents to his God and one of his charisms, may Allah be pleased with him."

He said, "So said some of the scholars." Then he said: "But it is fair to say that the statement of the Prophet (sws) 'after that you will never go astray' refutes this (Umar's) situation, because the statement of the Prophet (sws) is a conditional statement, which means "If you bring me a piece of paper and an inkwell and let me write the book for you, you will never be lost after that". Definitely reporting something like this just for the sake of mere information to test others is sort of a clear lie that we should glorify the prophets on high, especially at a time when it would be better not to bring paper and inkwell, than to bring them. This justification is weak from other quarters and therefore we have to find another justification.”

He said: "What we can say is that the matter was not a binding order that could not be argued and the arguer would be disobedient, it was a matter of consultation. The Companions often discussed some of these commands with the Prophet (sws) and especially with 'Umar who knew that he always kept the boons and was inspired by Allah. Out of kindness to the Prophet (s) 'Umar did not want to tire the Prophet (s) when he dictated this book while he was ill; therefore Umar thought that it would be better not to bring the paper and the inkwell.

“Or 'Umar might fear that the Prophet (sws) will write some things that people would not be able to fulfill and would therefore deserve punishment for doing so, since the Prophet's (sws) orders would be binding and would not be interpreted in any other way.

“Or he fears that hypocrites will criticize this book because the Prophet (sws) was ill when he wrote it and would then cause an uproar; therefore 'Umar said: 'The Book of Allah is sufficient for us', because Allah said:

“We don't neglecteverything in the book” (Quran 6:38)e
"Today I have completed your religion for you" (Quran 5:3)

as if Umar were sure that the Ummahwould not go astray because Allah perfected the religion for her (the Ummah) and completed His favor on her.

“This is the justification of the ulama. The saying of the Prophet (sws) "Thou shalt never go astray" is crucial and obligatory, for the attempt to secure that which prevents deviation as much as possible is undoubtedly obligatory. The Prophet's anger and his command to his Companions to "go" if they disobeyed his command was further evidence that the matter was binding and not a matter of consultation.

"If you say: If the matter were obligatory, the Prophet (sws) would not stop just because the Companions opposed him, just as he would not stop informing the Mission despite the opposition of the unbelievers. The answer is that writing this book was not obligatory for the Prophet (s) after his Companions opposed him, and this does not mean that bringing the paper and the inkwell was not obligatory, especially when the Prophet ( s.) it commanded them and explained to them that this book would keep them from deviating. The fact is that a command binds the commanded and not the commander, especially when the utility of that command concerns the commanded; therefore, the binding force of this arrangement was on the Companions and not on the Prophet (s).

"It may also be obligatory for the Prophet (s) but it did not become so when the Companions disobeyed him and said: 'The Messenger of Allah is delusional' because the book would lead to nothing but riot afterwards.

"Some scholars may justify that 'Umar and those who helped him did not understand what the Prophet said that the book would be the reason to save every individual before the Ummah from deviating, that after that no one would would deviate. They understood from the saying "You will not deviate" that the entire Ummah would not deviate in general and the deviation would not affect all individuals in the Ummah after the writing of this book. They knew that it was impossible for the entire Ummah to go astray; therefore they thought that it was not necessary to write this book.

“They thought that the Prophet (sws) only wanted to draw their attention to the matter out of kindness and mercy. They opposed the Prophet (sws) thinking that the matter was not necessary but it was out of his goodness and mercy, so they did not want to tire the Prophet (sws) when they refused the paper and the inkwell bring to.

"That's all that was said to justify it. But whoever thinks about this justification will find that it is far from the truth, because the Prophet's statement "Thou shalt not go astray" means that the thing is necessary, as we have said, also means his anger leave a binding order on them that they have done so. The Prophet (sws) commanded them to go in spite of their great patience and this is evidence that they left the most obliging and useful as their great morals are known.

"It would be better when we talk about this event to say: It was an issue that happened against your behavior. It was a slip and stumble on their part that we cannot justify. Allah is the guide to the straight path.”

Sheikh Saleem al-Bishri did his best to justify this resistance and find an excuse for these resisters, but he found no way to do so. Rather, his knowledge and justice refused except to refute these trifles. He wasn't content to refute them with evidence, but he examined all the evidence he could get. May Allah reward him for what he has done.

Refute excuses in other ways

Since we had other evidence to refute these justifications, at that time I wanted to offer this evidence to him (Sheikh al-Bishri) and asked him to judge on it.

Du (Sheikh al-Bishri) said: They (who defended Umar) said that when the Prophet (sws) ordered his Companions to bring a paper and an inkwell, perhaps he did not intend to write anything down, but he did just test it out.

I say in addition to what you said: This event happened while the Prophet (sws) was about to die. It wasn't a testing season; rather, it was a time of exhortation and counsel to the Ummah. One on the brink of death would be far from pranks and pranks. He would be busy with himself, his important business and the important affairs of his relatives, especially if he were a prophet.

If he could not test his people all his life, how should he test them in the hour of death?

When the Companions were quarreling and shouting loudly in front of him, the Prophet (s) ordered them to leave. This showed that he was angry with her. If the resisters were right, the Prophet (s) would accept it from them and be pleased with them!

Anyone who has studied this tradition and especially its statements "The Messenger of Allah is delusional" would be sure that these Companions were aware that the Prophet (sws) intended to proclaim something they hated; wherefore they surprised him with this terrible word, and quarreled and made much noise before him.

Ibn 'Abbas' weeping over this event and regarding it as a calamity was further evidence disproving this justification.

Those who justified the event said: 'Umar was always right when he saw the benefits and he was inspired by Allah. This nonsense could never be heard because it showed that the law in this case was on the side of 'Umar and not on the side of the Prophet (s) and it showed that 'Umar's inspiration was truer than the revelation revealed to the Prophet was ( S) by Allah.

They also said: 'Umar wanted to relieve the Prophet (sws) from the fatigue he would get from dedicating this book while he was ill. Writing the book would definitely delight the Prophet's heart because he would be sure that his Ummah would be safe from deviations.

The command and divine will of the Prophet (s) must be obeyed. The Prophet (sws) wanted the Companions to bring him a piece of paper and an inkwell to write a book and the Companions had no right to disobey him or oppose his will. Allah said:

“And it is not advisable for the believer and thebelieving woman that they should have every choice in their matter when Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter; and whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger surely deviates from an obvious deviation” (Quran 33:36).

The opposition of the Companions and their quarrels and shouting before the Prophet (sws) were more tiring for him than dictating this book. So how could the one who felt sorry for the Prophet (sws) because he was tired of dictating the Book, resist him and surprise him by saying: "The Messenger of Allah is delusional"?

They said: Umar thought it better not to bring the paper and the inkwell, although the Prophet (sws) ordered it. Umar thought that the Prophet (sws) ordered something better left to neglect?

Stranger than what they said: Umar might be afraid that the Prophet (sws) would write some things that people could not fulfill and then they would deserve a punishment for not fulfilling them!

How did Umar fear that as long as the Prophet (sws) said: "You will never deviate"? Did they think that 'Umar was more aware of the goals than the Prophet (sws) and more compassionate and concerned about the Ummah? Certainly not!

They also said: 'Umar might fear that because the Prophet (sws) was ill when he wrote it, the hypocrites will consider the book false, and that would cause an uproar.

This was impossible because the Prophet (sws) had said: "You will never deviate". He had confirmed that the Book would keep the Ummah from deviating; So how could it be cause for uproar when hypocrites criticize it?

If Umar feared that hypocrites might mistake the book; So why did he lead them to this when he resisted and said: "The Messenger of Allah is delusional"?

What they say when interpreting Umar's statement "The Book of Allah is enough for us" according to these two verses:

"WeI have not neglected anything in the Book" (Quran 6:38)e
"Today I have completed your religion for you" (Quran 5:3)

That is not rightfor these two verses do not refer to being safe from deviations and do not guarantee guidance to people. How would it be possible for them to leave this book and rely on these two verses? If the existence of the Qur'an had saved the Ummah from deviation, then there would not have been this deviation and dissension among the Muslims!

(The Prophet (sws) did not say: "I want to write the judgments" so that one can say: "The Book of Allah is sufficient for us to understand the judgments". If we assume that the Prophet (sws) wanted to write the judgments, then writing them down could be the reason to keep the Ummah from deviating, and therefore no one could be excused from neglecting this book and pretending to be satisfied with the Qur'an being . In fact, it would not be permissible to leave it dependent on the Qur'an if that book had nothing but salvation from deviations.They know very well that the Ummah absolutely needs the holy Sunna and cannot refrain from relying on the Koran just because it is not easy for everyone to grasp the judgments of the Koran. If the Qur'an were sufficient without the Sunnah, Allah would not have commanded the Prophet (sws) to explain it to the people. Allah said:"And We have revealed to you the Reminder so that you may explain to people what has been revealed to them" (Qur'an16:44))

They said in their final justification: 'Umar did not understand from the words of the Prophet that this book would be the cause to prevent each individual of the Ummah from deviating, but he understood it as a cause to prevent the Ummah as a whole would deviate. and he (Umar), may Allaah be pleased with him, knew that in case of any deviation, the Ummah would not come together whether this book was written or not, and therefore he defied the Prophet (s) on that day.

I say in addition to what you said:(O autor se dirige a Sheikh al-Bishri.)Umar was not the type who would not understand from the tradition, which was clear to all people, because everyone understood that if this book had been written, it would have been a perfect cause to save all individuals from going astray. . It is this meaning that people understand.

'Umar knew very well that the Prophet (s) was not afraid that his Ummah would gather in a roundabout way, because he often heard the Prophet (s) say: "My Ummah does not gather in a roundabout way nor by mistake ' and 'A group of my Ummah will still keep the truth.' Allah said:

“Allah has promised themof you who believe and do good, that he will surely make you rulers on earth as he made rulers before them, and that he will certainly establish for them the religion which he has chosen for them, and that he will surely do it after your fear, give them security in return; they will serve me and associate nothing with me” (Quran 24:55).

leavesThere are many clear texts in the Qur'an and Sunnah that show that the Ummah as a whole will not come together in deviation. Therefore, it was unreasonable for 'Umar or anyone other than 'Umar to believe that the Prophet (sws) feared that the Ummah would deviate in everything. It was up to 'Umar to understand from the narration what came to mind and not what the Qur'an and Sunna had denied!

The Prophet (sws) got angry and said to the Companions: "Go!" This meant that they had resisted one of the necessary obligations that they had to perform. If 'Umar's resistance was due to misunderstanding the words of the Prophet, as those who defended him claimed, then the Prophet (sws) would have cleared up his misunderstanding and explained his (the Prophet's) intention to the Companions. In fact, if the Prophet (sws) could have convinced them of what he had ordered, he would not have taken them away from his house. The weeping and grief of Ibn 'Abbas is one of the clearest proofs of what we have said.

In fact, this "misfortune" can never be excused. If, as you say, it was a slip and stumble, it would be easy, but it was misfortune that broke his spine! In fact, the resisters were among those who believed in itijtihadagainst plain text and at this event they practicedijtihadbefore the text of the Prophet (sws). They had their own opinion and Allah had his own opinion!

Shaykh al-Bishri admires what we said

When Shaykh al-Bishri read our speech refuting these excuses, he replied by saying:

“You have blocked the way of the justifiers, controlling their ways and dividing them and their purposes. There is no doubt as to what you said, and there is nothing to arouse the slightest suspicion as to what you said..."

Treaty of al-Hudaybiya

Kein Dia von al-Hudaybiya(Al-Hudaybiya is a village about nine miles from Mecca.)The Prophet (s) preferred peace to war and ordered it as Allah had revealed to him. The blessings of Islam demanded this peace treaty, but this blessing was unknown to the Companions of the Prophet and therefore some of his Companions denied the treaty and openly defied the Prophet (s). The Prophet (s) ignored their resistance and continued to do what he was commanded by Allah, and so the end was the best of the conquerors.

The event in detail

The Prophet (s) left Medina on the first Monday of Thul Qa'da in the sixth year of Hijra to perform the minor Hajj. He feared that the Quraysh might make war on him or prevent him from performing Hajj in the Kaaba as they had done before. He called people to offer small Hajj with him. Fourteen hundred men of Muhajireen, Ansar, and other tribesmen followed him.(It was also mentioned that they were more and it was mentioned that they were less. The Prophet (s) took his wife Umm Salama (may Allaah be pleased with her) with him. Many of the nomads did not follow him. They were hypocrites whom Allah disapproved of in the Surah of al-Fath revealed after this event: "And Allah is angry with them and has cursed them and prepared Hell for them, and evil is the source" (Quran 48: ).Among those who went with him were al-Mugheera bin Shu'ba and Ibn Salool, who honored him under the tree in al-Hudaybaiya.)

Among them were two hundred horsemen.

He took (al-hadiy) seventy camels as a gift for the Kaaba. He took no weapons with him, except such weapons as travelers are allowed to take with them; swords and waterskins.('Umar said to the Prophet (sws): "O Messenger of Allah, you fear Abu Sufyan and his companions. Why don't you take guns with you? The Prophet (sws) said: "I do not take weapons with me while I am performing Hajj.")

When the Prophet (sws) and his Companions reached Thul Hulayfa, they marked (al-hadiy) the camels and they were in a state of ritual consecration (ihram) so that people would know that he and his companions had come as pilgrims and not as warriors.

So he and his companions went on and after walking a little he learned that Khalid bin al-Waleed was at al-Ghameem (a place near Mecca) with two hundred horsemen of the Quraysh. At their head was Akrima bin Abu Jahl. The Prophet (s) said this to his Companions and ordered them to take the right path to avoid the path of Khalid and his men. They moved to al-Hamdh(A place near al-Hudaybiya.)and Khalid did not notice them until he saw the black dust of his army. Khalid and his horsemen approached the Prophet (sws) and his companions. The Prophet (s) ordered Abbad bin Bishr to stand in front of Khalid with his horsemen.

The time for the Dhuhr prayer has come. The Prophet (s) said the prayer with his companions. The polytheists said, "Muhammad and his companions gave you an opportunity to surpass them". Khalid said: "Yes, they were accidental. If we attacked them, we would have won. But before long they will have another prayer dearer to themselves and their children.”

Then Allah revealed to the Prophet (s):

"And if it's youamong them and pray for them, cause a crowd of them to rise up with you and take up arms; So when they prostrate, let them go behind you, and let another part that did not pray come forward and pray with you, and let them carry their precautions and carry their weapons. (for) the disbelievers want you to be careless with your weapons and baggage, to turn against you with a sudden united attack, and there is no fault on you when you fret over the rain or when you are ill, that you lay down your arms and take your precautions; verily Allah has prepared a shameful punishment for the disbelievers.
So when you have finished the prayer, remember that Allah is standing, sitting and reclined; but if you are safe (from danger), go on praying; surely prayer is a timed ordinance for believers. And do not be weak in pursuit of the enemy; if you suffer pain, then they certainly suffer pain as you suffer pain, and you expect from Allah what they do not expect; and Allah is Wise, Wise" (Quran 4:102-104)

Then the Prophet (sws) with his Companions performed the Asr prayer as the "fear" prayer prescribed by these previous verses.

“And Allah rejected the disbelievers in his anger; they gained no benefit" (Quran 33:25).

Aggressiveness of the Quraysh and the wisdom of the Prophet (sws)

When the Prophet (sws) came to al-Hudaybiya, he was greatly hurt by the polytheists. They met him and his companions with rudeness, disgust, hatred and open hostility. The polytheists also received this and much more from the Companions of the Prophet, because they did according to the saying of Allah:

"...and let herFind hardness in you..." (Quran 9:123)

But the Prophet (s) because of hisPatience, which Allah bestowed on him, he endured the polytheists with his wisdom, which was part of his nature, and his high morals, with which Allah preferred him to the rest of the Prophets and Messengers (s).

The polytheists rudely and insultingly prevented him from entering Mecca, but he was not annoyed or challenged in his patience. He treated these hard people with forbearance and indifference. He spoke humble words over them full of pride that made them see him above the stars and see themselves beneath the earth. His words were full of compassion and counsel to them and full of divine wisdom that moved their hearts in spite of their harshness and harshness, and they were also full of warnings and threats to uproot them if they continued on their way.

Here are some statements from the Prophet to ponder and discover the Prophet's purposes. The Prophet (s) said: "Woe to the Quraish! The war has exhausted them. What will they lose if they leave me alone with the Arabs? If the Arabs kill me it will be their wish (Quraysh) and if Allah lets me prevail over them they will become Muslims with honor and if they refuse (to be Muslims) they will fight against me with all their might! What do Quraish think? By Allah there is no God, I will still fight for what my God has sent me until Allah prevails or this throat is cut off!”

He said, drawing their attention to his great morals and favours: "I swear by Him in Whose Hand is my soul that if the Quraysh invite me on an airplane today they will ask me to maintain kinship relations , I will answer you."

Through these wise and merciful words he declared his mercy and then gathered his companions to consult with them about fighting the Quraish if the Quraish insisted on preventing him from visiting the Kaaba. Most of his companions, or perhaps all, were willing to fight the Quraysh and others besides the Quraysh. They were eager for it.

During this enthusiasm, al-Miqdad stood up and expressed the distress of all. He said: "O Messenger of Allah, let us not tell you what the Israelites said to Prophet Moses (sws):

"Then you go andyour lord and fight! We will sit here" (Quran 5:24)

but we say: go youand your Lord, and fight; we will fight with you O Messenger of Allah, by Allah, if you take us to Bard al-Ghamad,(It was one of Yemen's impenetrable fortresses. Marching to this fortress meant they would face inevitable death because the fortress was so strong and defended. The fortress, whose inhabitants were polytheistic, was surrounded by mountains and the roads leading to it were very rough.)we will go with you even if only one of us survives.

The Prophet (sws) was pleased to hear this. They honored him and promised to support him until his last breath. There were fourteen hundred men. Among them was the leader of the hypocrites; Ibn Salol.(Al-Halabi said in his Seera: "Historians who recorded the history of the battle of al-Hudaybiya mentioned that the Quraysh sent a message to Ibn Salool while he was with the Prophet (sws). He was told: “You may enter Mecca if you wish and walk around the Kaaba.” His son Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him) said to him: “O Father, for the sake of Allah do not embarrass us everywhere. How will you go around the Kaaba while the Prophet (s) does not?” So he refused to do this and said: “I will not go around the house until the Prophet (s) does.” As When the Prophet (sws) heard about it, he thanked Ibn Salool and asked Allah to be pleased with him. So bn Salool was one of those who paid homage to the Prophet under the tree. Therefore, none of those who were with the Prophet (s) in al-Hudaybiya failed to worship the Prophet (s) except al-Jadd bin Qays al-Ansary, according to all historians.”)

Nobody refrained from paying homage to him except a man named al-Jadd bin Qays al-Ansari.(Al-Halabi said in his seera that Salama bin al-Aqwa' had said: We promised the Prophet (sws) that we would die for him and none of us backed down except al-Jadd bin Qays. He clutched his camel's shoulders to hide.)

Fear of polytheists and call for peace

As soon as the Quraysh heard of this homage (ar-Radhwan's homage).(This obeisance was paid to the Prophet (s) under a tree; therefore it was called the homage of the tree and it was also called the homage of ar-Radhwan (Allah's goodwill on the believers), because of the saying of Allah:

"Verily Allah was very pleased with the believers when they swore allegiance to you under the tree" (Qur'an48:18) and His statement at the end of the sura: "Allah has promised forgiveness and great reward to those among them who believe and do good" (Quran48:29).
Blessed are those who kept faith and good deeds until they found their Lord who was pleased with them and commended them in His Book and promised them forgiveness and great reward. Allah said:

"And if you desire Allah and His Messenger and the last abode, then surely Allah has prepared a great reward for the benefactors among you" (Qur'an33:29) and "(As for) those who say: 'Our Lord is Allah, continue on the right path,' the angels descend upon them and say: 'Do not be afraid, do not be sad and receive good tidings from the promised garden for you (Quran41:30). Sincere believers are far above any false traditions that the makers have invented against them, as the holy verses of the Qur'an refute all these false traditions.)Their hearts trembled and their chests filled with fear, especially after Akrima bin Abu Jahl attacked the Muslims and the Prophet (s) with five hundred horsemen as mentioned inal-Kashshaf, had sent him some of his companions who defeated him and his men and forced them to retreat until they fell back on the walls of Mecca. Ibn Abbas said: "Allah caused the Muslims to hit Akrima and his men with stones until they entered the house, and then they knew that they would not face Muhammad (sws) and his companions."

Then the sages of the Quraysh were obliged to ask the Prophet (s) for peace. They knew beforehand that the Prophet (sws) had said: "I swear by Him in Whose Hand is my soul that if the Quraysh invite me today to a plan in which they ask me to maintain kinship ties, I will answer”, so they sent some of their personalities to the Prophet (s) headed by Suhayl bin Amr bin Abd Widd al-Aamiry to represent all the Quraysh before the Prophet (s) and for a truce under some conditions to ask that they had put on.

The conditions were too oppressive for the Muslims and they rejected them, but the Quraysh polytheists insisted that they resort to the promise promised by the Prophet (s) to answer them whenever they asked a question of kinship . The Prophet (s) was commanded by Allah to grant this promise and act accordingly. He accepted their harsh terms because he was obeying Allah's revelation and according to the benefit of which Allah was aware. Later all Muslims knew about this advantage. You will see the details in a coming chapter inshallah.

Umar despises the terms of the truce

When peace was made by both sides under these conditions, 'Umar bin al-Khattab became very angry and fanaticism preoccupied him. He came to Abu Bakr while burning with anger. He said to Abu Bakr:(As in Seera de Halabi and other history books.)"O Abu Bakr, is he not the Messenger of Allah?"

Abu Bakr said, "Yes, he is."
Umar said: "Are we not Muslims?" Abu Bakr said: "Yes we are!"
Umar said: "Aren't they polytheists?" Abu Bakr said: "Yes, they are?"
Umar said: “Then why do we submit to your terms?” Abu Bakr said: “O man, he is the Messenger of Allah and he never disobeys his Lord who supports him. Stay with him, follow him and obey him until you die. I testify that he is the Messenger of Allah..."(There! As if Umar doubted the prophecy of the Prophet (sws)!)

Muslim mentioned in hissahih, Vol.2 Chap. the truce of al-Hudaybiya that 'Umar said to the Prophet (sws):

"Are we not in the truth and they not in lies?"
The Prophet (sws) said: "Yes."

Umar said: "Then why do we submit to their terms and go back (without performing Hajj) before Allah has judged between us and them?"
The Prophet (s) said: "O Ibn al-Khattab, I am the Messenger of Allah and Allah will never neglect me."

Umar got very angry and went to Abu Bakr and said to him: "Are we not in the truth and are they not in lies?"
Abu Bakr said, "Yes, we are."
Umar said: "Are not our dead in heaven and their dead in hell?"
Abu Bakr said, "Yes, they are."

Umar said, "Then why do we submit to them and not defend our religion?"
Abu Bakr said: "O Ibn al-Khattab, he is the Messenger of Allah and Allah will never neglect him." Many other scholars have mentioned this tradition in their books.

Al-Bukhari mentioned hissahih (Bd.2 S.81)that Umar had said to the Prophet (s):

"Aren't you really the Messenger of Allah?"

The Prophet (s) said: "Yes, I am."

Umar said: "Are we not in the truth and is not our enemy in lies?"
The Prophet (s) said: "Yes, we are."

Umar said, "Then why do we submit to them and not defend our religion?"
The Prophet (s) said: "I am the Messenger of Allah. I am not disobedient (The Prophet's statement "I will not disobey him" confirms what we have said, that the Prophet (sws) was commanded by Allah to carry out the truce as it was carried out.)He and He will support me.”

Umar said, "Didn't you tell us that we would go around the Kaaba?"
The Prophet (s) said: “Yes, I have; but did I tell you that this year we will circumnavigate the Kaaba?
Umar said, "No, you don't."
The Prophet (s) said: "You will come to the Kaaba and go around it."

(In the year of al-Fath (the conquest), when the Prophet (s) took the key to Mecca, he sent to 'Umar. When he came, the Prophet (sws) said to him: "O 'Umar, this is what I told you." When the Prophet (sws) stopped at the farewell Hajj (al-wada') in Arafa, sent he also went to 'Umar and said to him: 'This is what I told you.)

Umar came to Abu Bakr and said to him: "O Abu Bakr, is he not really the Prophet of Allah?"
Abu Bakr said, "Yes, he is."

Umar said: "Are we not in the truth and aren't we our enemies in lies?"
Abu Bakr said, "Yes, we are."

Umar said, "Then why do we submit and not defend our religion?"
Abu Bakr said: "O man, he is the Messenger of Allah. He does not disobey his Lord and Allah will support him.(Abu Bakr's statement "he does not despise his Lord" showed that Abu Bakr was aware that the Prophet (sws) had been commanded by Allah to conclude the peace agreement.)

Stay tuned and follow him. By Allah, he is in the truth.”

Umar said, "Didn't he tell us that we would go to the Kaaba and bypass it?"

Abu Bakr said, "Yes he did, but did he tell you that you would circumnavigate the Kaaba this year?"
Umar said, "No, he didn't."
He said, "You will visit and walk around the Kaaba."
Umar said: "I have done many things for it."

(THis word from Umar clearly showed the great deeds he had done to spoil the peace and because of this, Umar and his followers disobeyed the Prophet when he commanded them to sacrifice the sacrifices until he repeated his command three times . You will see the details later inshallah.)

When the Prophet (sws) finished writing the Book of Armistice, he said to his Companions: "Go and slaughter the victims and then cut their hair." The narrator added: "By Allah, none of them moved to carry out the command of the Prophet. The Prophet (s) repeated this three times. When none of them did so, the Prophet (sws) entered his tent and then left without speaking to any of them. He killed a camel and then asked a companion to cut his hair. Seeing this, the companions began to slaughter the victims and then cut each other's hair until they were about to kill each other."

Ahmad bin Hanbal mentioned this tradition in hisMusnadfrom al-Musawwir ibn Makhra and Marwan ibn al-Hakam. Al Halabi in his own rightLeiand many other historians, when speaking about the truce of al-Hudaybiya, mentioned that 'Umar had debated with the Prophet (sws) that day. Then Abu Ubayda bin al-Jarrah said to him:

"O Ibn al-Khattab (Umar), do you not hear what the Prophet (s) is saying? We turn to Allah from the evil of Satan!”

Al-Halabi and other historians mentioned that the Prophet (sws) said to Umar that day: "O Umar, I myself agreed, so why didn't you agree?" They also mentioned that Umar used to say afterwards: "I still fast, pray, give alms and free slaves so that my speech I said to the Prophet (s) may be forgiven..."

fulfillment of the peace treaty

The Prophet (s) did not pay attention to the opposition of these people that day, as it was commanded by Allah. The peace treaty was very onerous because of its oppressive terms. The Prophet (s) sent for Imam 'Ali (as) to write the form of the contract. He said to Imam Ali (as): "Write: In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful." Suhayl bin Amr said: "We do not know. Let him write: in Your name, O Allah.”

The Muslims started shouting and saying: "No, by Allah, he will not write anything that the Messenger of Allah has not said." But the Prophet (s) ended the dispute by saying to Imam Ali (as). : "Write: in your name, O Allah." Imam 'Ali (as) wrote the book as the Prophet (s) ordered.

Then the Prophet (s) said to him: "Write: This is what Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, agreed with Suhayl bin Amr." Suhayl said: "If we regarded you as the Messenger of Allah, we would not have fought you or prevented you from leaving the house (the Kaaba). But let him write: This is what Muhammad bin Abdullah agreed with Suhayl bin Amr.” The Muslims started shouting and denying what Suhayl had said. They refused and insisted on writing down what the Prophet (sws) had said. The riot was imminent.

The Prophet (s) said:

"I am Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, even if you do not believe me. And I am Muhammad bin Abdullah. O Ali write: This is what Muhammad bin Abdullah agreed with Suhayl bin Amr.” Imam 'Ali (as) reluctantly wrote it. The Prophet (sws) said to him: "O Abul Hasan (Ali), you will be in the same situation one day" or he said to him: "O Abul Hasan, you will receive and answer the same while being oppressed. " .

(THis speech of the Prophet (sws) was considered by all Muslims as one of the signs of Prophethood and one of the signs of Islam. Details were mentioned in the Seera of al-Halabi, the Seera of ad-Dahlani and other history books.)

The terms of the truce required the Prophet (s) and his Companions to return to Medina from al-Hudaybiya and the following year the Quraysh left Mecca for the Prophet (s) and his Companions to enter and stay there for three days. The Prophet (sws) and his companions had to come without weapons except swords in scabbards.

The war between them had to stop for ten years.(Based on other traditions mentioned by historians, the truce was either two or four years.)where people would live peacefully. They had to avoid teasing each other. Whoever from (other tribes) of the Arabs wanted to make peace with Muhammad,(The Khuza'a tribe made a treaty with the Prophet (sws). They faced the allies of the Prophet's grandfather, Abdul Muttalib. Bakr's tribe allied with Quraysh. Then a war took place between Khuza'a and Bakr in which Quraysh supported his ally (the tribe of Bakr) against the ally of the Prophet (the tribe of Khuza'a) and therefore Quraysh broke al-Hudaybiya's treaty with the Prophet (s ) and then the Prophet (s) declared to invade Quraysh. The result of this invasion was the great victory and the significant conquest of Mecca.)could do that, and those who wished to ally themselves with the Quraysh could do so. The two sides should not harbor any hidden grudges against each other in their hearts. They had to refrain from theft and treason.

If any of the Quraysh who believed in Muhammad (s) took refuge in Muhammad (s) without his master's permission, he had to be brought back to his master, and if any of Muhammad's companions took refuge in Quraysh after falling from the had apostatized, the Quraysh would not have returned it to Muhammad (s). Muslims said:"Glory to Allah! How do we bring a Muslim who turns to us back to the polytheists of the Quraysh?”

Muslims found it very difficult to accept this condition. Said:

“O Messenger of Allah, do you accept this condition against yourself?” He said: “Yes, I do. Whoever leaves us after becoming apostate may Allah remove him, and whoever comes to us after becoming a Muslim and we give him back to them, Allah will deliver him.”

While the Prophet (sws) and Suhayl bin Amr were writing the contract with the agreed terms, Abu Jandal al-Aass bin Suhayl bin Amr (son of Suhayl bin Amr) went to the Muslims and pulled his ties. Abu Jandal had become a Muslim in Mecca some time ago, but his father prevented him from migrating to Medina. He tied him up and put him in jail. When Abu Jandal learned that the Prophet (sws) and his companions had reached al-Hudaybiya, he played a trick to get out of prison. He took a path through the mountains until he reached Muslims who were happy to receive him.

But his father Suhayl dragged him with his clothes and severely slapped his face.(Muslims began to cry for him)

while saying to the Prophet (sws):

"O Muhammad, this is the first thing I will ask to return to me." The Prophet (s) said to him: "We have not yet finished writing the contract." Suhayl said: "Then I will not make amends.” The Prophet (sws) said to him: “Then let him be my source!” he said: “I will not”. The Prophet (s) said: "You must do this." He said: "I will not do it."

Mukriz bin Hafs and Huwaytib bin Abdul Uzza, who were prominent men of the Quraysh, said to the Prophet (s):

"O Muhammad, we will protect him for you." They took Abu Jandal to a pavilion and took his father away from him. Then Suhayl said: "O Muhammad, the matter between me and you was closed and closed before my son came to you." The Prophet (s) said: "You are right." Then the Prophet (s) said to Abu Jandal : "Be patient and wait for Allah's reward. The peace treaty was made before you arrived, and we have not betrayed it. We asked your father about you, but he refused. Allah will grant you and the weak like you deliverance.”

Here Umar sprang at Abu Jandal and tried to kill his father and tried to give him a sword. Umar said as mentioned in ad-DahlaniLeiand other books: "I wish he had taken the sword and struck his father." He said to Abu Jandal: "One can kill your father. By Allah, if we had known our parents, we would have killed them.” But Abu Jandal did not respond to 'Umar by killing his father for fear of causing an uproar.(If Suhayl had been killed that day, there would have been an uproar between the Muslims and the Quraish, the evil of which would have spread far and wide.)and he obeyed the Prophet (sws) when he commanded him to be patient and wait for Allah's reward.

(When 'Umar Abu Jandal tried to kill his father, he undoubtedly defied the Prophet (s) who ordered Abu Jandal to be patient and wait for Allah's deliverance.)

He said to Umar, "Why didn't you kill him yourself?" Umar said: "The Prophet (s) has forbidden us to kill him and others besides him."(This was another objection to the Prophet (s) who had forbidden his Companions to kill Suhayl and others than Suhayl, but 'Umar Abu Jandal had tried to kill Suhayl.)Abu Jandal said to him: "You are not more worthy than me to obey the Messenger of Allah."

(Abu Jandal had a brother named Abdullah who had become Muslim before Abu Jandal. Abdullah had gone into the battle of Badr with the polytheist, but before that he was a Muslim but had hidden his faith. Arriving at the place of battle, he joined the Prophet (sws) and fought with him in Badr and thereafter in all the battles of the Prophet (sws). The first battle Abu Jandal took part in was the capture of Mecca.)

Abu Jandal returned to Mecca with his father under the protection of Mukriz and Huwaytib. They placed him in a special place and prevented his father from harming him in order to remain true to the promise of protection they made to the Prophet (s). After some time, Allah granted liberation to Abu Jandal and the rest of the oppressed weak Muslims. You will see this later inshallah. Praise be to Allah who supported His slave and fulfilled His promise.

the fruit of peace

The first fruit of the peace treaty was that it mixed Muslims and polytheists. Polytheists started coming to Medina after the armistice and Muslims started going to Mecca.

When the polytheists came to Medina and saw the Prophet (s) with his high morals and exalted conduct, they held him in high esteem and appreciated his divine aspects and then admired Islam with its laws and judgments, with its permissive and inadmissible obligations and relationships and with all its rules and judgments. They were struck by the Qur'an and its verses, which attracted their minds and hearts.

They were amazed when they saw that the Companions of the Prophet (sws) completely submitted to the commands of the Prophet (sws). And so they approached the Faith after being in utter blindness and aggression. Returning to their people, they spread the principles of Muhammad (sws) and warned against his conquest.

When Muslims went to Mecca, they were alone with their relatives and close friends. They started advising and inviting them to the mission of Allah and His Messenger. They showed them the signs of Prophethood and Islam. They showed the Quran with its knowledge, wisdom, social rules, duties, ethics, maxims and stories of ancient and former nations. They worked as preachers in the heart of Mecca, and this work had a great impact, paving the way for the great attainment, which took place without struggle or resistance.

One of the benefits of peace was the mere meeting between the Prophet (sws) and the polytheists in al-Hudaybiya. The polytheists met the Prophet (s) face to face and saw his great personality and high morals and leadership which most Quraish knew nothing about, especially the youth. Abu Jahl, al-Waleed, Abu Sufyan, Shayba, Utba and their idolatrous colleagues tried their best to slander the Prophet (s) and they managed to poison public opinion. They did everything they could
„..put out the light of Allah with yoursmouths, and Allah would not consent except to perfect His light..." (Quran 9:32).

They went to where he migrated to kill him and his companions and finish off the people who had protected and supported him, but Allah granted him victory in Badr, Uhud and al-Ahzab;
“Such are the roots of the people who werethe unrighteous were cut off; and all praise is due to Allah, Lord of the Worlds" (Quran 6:45).

The people of Mecca kept their distorted opinion of the Prophet (sws) after these wars as they had not seen him after he migrated to Medina and knew nothing about him except what the makers spread false news, but on the Als when they mingled with him and his companions on the day of al-Hudaybiya, they noticed his high morals and high personality.

Whenever they treated him harshly and harmed him, he treated them kindly and did good. If they were strict and hard on him, he would be kind and merciful to them. He continued to counter his bad deeds with good deeds. He followed the saying of Allah:

“Defend (evil) with what isbetter if it! the one between whom and you was at enmity would be like a warm friend. And no one is made to receive it except those who are patient, and no one is made to receive it except those who have great wealth.” (Quran 41:34-35)

The Prophet (s) was then able to enter Mecca and visit the Kaaba by force because Allah had said regarding this event:

“And if the infidels fought you, theywould surely turn their backs on them, then they would find no protector or helper" (Quran 48:22)

e:"And it is He who restrained your hands and your hands from them in the valley of Mecca, after giving you victory over them" (Quran 48:24).

The polytheists were sure that if the Prophet (sws) had fought them, they would have been defeated. They knew his comrades had urged him to fight, but he refused, preferring peace that would end well to war to save the blood of the people and respect the Kaaba. The people of Quraysh knew very well that the Prophet (s) took pity on them and cared about their kinship rights; therefore he accepted the armistice with its heavy conditions. He held no grudge against them, although they prevented him and his companions from visiting the Kaaba and forced them to return to Medina, where many of their companions did not want to go.

The Quraysh thought that this was in retaliation for what happened in the battles of Badr, Uhud and al-Ahzab because on that day they realized that the Prophet (sws) was not responsible for the shed blood of the people of Quraysh was, but her own bosses. from Quraysh who were responsible for it; like Abu Sufyan, Abu Jahl and their ilk who attacked the Prophet (sws) at his emigration place and then forced him to defend himself and his Companions. Had they left him and those who welcomed and protected him alone, he would not have fought them and been content to spread his mission with wisdom and just admonition.

In al-Hudaybiya, the Prophet (s) quenched the flame of anger in the hearts of these polytheists, removing their hatred and letting them know the reality of their chiefs and masters until they confessed that they offended the Prophet (s) and themselves had good. Therefore, their hearts became forgiving and they felt that their end would be good if they joined him and came under his banner. And so it was after the great victory and the honorable conquest of Mecca; the people of Quraysh, group by group, became Muslims.

Return to Medina

The Prophet (s) stayed in al-Hudaybiya for nineteen days. After that he returned to Medina. When he reached Kira'ul Ghameem - between Mecca and Medina - the Surah of al-Fat~h was revealed to him. Umar was still angry that polytheists prevented Muslims from entering Mecca and, contrary to their expectations, forced them to return. The Prophet (s) wanted to remove Umar's anger and pain when this surah was revealed to him, so he said to him - as mentioned by al-Bukhaari:(In his Sahih, Volume 3, Chapter A battle of al-Hudaybiya.)

"A surah is revealed to me, which is dearer to me than anything that exists on earth." Then he recited the surah of al-Fat~h: "We have certainly given youa clear victory…” (Quran 48:1).

One of the Prophet's companions related itClear:

"It's not a win. We were prevented from visiting the house (the Kaaba) and two faithful men were brought back (to the polytheists) after approaching us.”(How! Allah Almighty said: "Verily We have given you a clear victory..." and the Prophet (sws) recited as it was revealed to him by Allah, but this man said: "This is not victory!" You know, who is this man?!)The Prophet (s) said: "What bad talk is this! Yes, it's the greatest victory. The polytheists were content to drive you from your land and begged you for peace, but they found in you what they did not like. Allah gave him a victory and brought him back safe and sound and rewarded. It's the biggest win.

Did you forget the day of Uhud when:

" ran away in a hurry and didn't wait for anyone, and I called you from the back."(Koran3:153)

Did you forget the day of al-Ahzab when:

"...they came upon you from above and below, and when your eyes became dull and your heart rose to your throat and you began to think various thoughts of Allah" (Quran 33:10)

The Muslims said: "Allah and His Messenger are right. O Prophet of Allah, by Allah, we did not think what you thought. You are more aware of Allah and His commands than we are.”(See the story of al-Hudaybiya in the Seera of ad-Dahlani and other history books.)
But Umar then said: "O Messenger of Allah, did you not say that you would enter Makkah safely?"
The Prophet (sws) said: "Yes, I have, but did I tell you that I would go to Mecca this year?"
Umar said, "No, you don't." (Al-Halabis Seera e Outros.)

Sa'eed bin Mansoor mentioned what Ash-Shi'bi had said when speaking about the verse(Verily We gave you oneclear win): “There was no greater victory in Islam thanThat before. When the armistice was signed and the state of war ended, people felt safe together. So they met and debated among themselves, and none of the Muslims discussed Islam with a wise polytheist unless he became a Muslim. The people who believed in Islam during these two years were more than the people who believed in Islam during the entire previous period.

What confirmed this was that the Prophet (sws) came to al-Hudaybiya with fourteen hundred Muslims and after two years came to conquer Mecca with ten thousand Muslims. The truce was the first step that paved the way for the great conquest of Mecca, after which thousands of people became Muslims; Therefore, the peace of al-Hudaybiya was called a victory because it was the beginning of the great victory of conquering Mecca.

Liberation was promised to the oppressed

You have seen the earlier tradition of Abu Jandal who played a trick to get out of prison and so he came with his shackles until he approached the Prophet (sws) and his companions in al-Hudaybiya. The Prophet (s) could not protect him and apologized to him but ordered him to be patient and wait for Allah's reward and deliverance. The Prophet (s) said to him: "Allah will grant you and those oppressed like you liberation."

Among the oppressed and tortured men in Makkah was a man named Abu Baseer(His name was Utba bin Asad bin Jariya bin Usayd ath-Thaqafi. Ibn Abdul Birr mentioned his biography in his book al-Istee'ab. Ibn Ishaq and other historians mentioned this story in their biography books. Here we quote him from the Seera of al-Halabi.)who was one of the Muslim heroes. He played a prank and got out of prison and then ran away to appeal to the Prophet (sws) in Medina after he returned from al-Hudaybiya. The Quraysh wrote a book for the Prophet (s) to send this man back to them.

They sent the book with a man from Bani Aamir named Khunays and with him was a guide who showed him the way. They came to the Prophet (s) with the book. The book said: 'You know the terms we agreed in the contract that you must turn back to us anyone who comes to you from our people. You need to send Abu Baseer to us.

The Prophet (s) said: “O Abu Baseer, as you know, we have agreed some terms with these people and we have not betrayed anyone. Allah will grant His deliverance to you and to weak and oppressed people like you. Please go with the grace of Allah.”
Abu Baseer said: "O Messenger of Allah, they will make me deviate from my religion."
The Prophet (s) said: "O Abu Baseer, go! Allah will grant you and those around you His deliverance from the oppressed.”

Abu Baseer said goodbye to the Prophet (sws) and went with these two men. When they arrived at Thul Hulayfa, they sat down by a wall to rest. Abu Baseer said to one of the men, "Oh man, is your sword sharp?"
The man said, "Yes, it is."
Abu Baseer said to him, "Could you show me?"

The man gave his sword to Abu Baseer. Abu Baseer struck the man with his sword and killed him and he tried to kill the other but ran away until he reached the Prophet (s). Abu Baseer ran after him. When the Prophet (sws) saw this, he said to the man: "What is your problem?"

The man said: "Your friend killed my friend and I just managed to escape his sword. i will be dead O Muhammad, protect me!”

The Prophet (s) promised to protect him. Then Abu Baseer came sword in hand and said: 'O Messenger of Allah, may I die for you! You just fulfilled your promise when you handed me over to them, but I defended my religion so as not to be misled by them.

The Prophet (sws) said to him: You can go where you like. Abu Baseer said: O Messenger of Allah, this man stole the man I killed. He stole your reservoir and sword and you can punish him. The Prophet (sws) said to him: "If I punish you, your people will think that I have broken the promise I made to them."

Then Abu Baseer went to a place where the Quraysh caravans were passing. He was joined by many oppressed Muslims imprisoned in Mecca after being informed of his news and after hearing that the Prophet (sws) had said of Abu Baseer: "He would wage war if he men with him.” These oppressed men began to slide toward him. Abu Jandal bin Suhayl bin Amr fled Mecca with seventy horsemen who became Muslims and they joined Abu Baseer. They did not want to go to the Prophet (sws) during this time of truce.

Some people from the tribes of Ghifar, Juhayna, Aslam and other Arab tribes joined them until they became about three hundred warriors. They began to cut off the way in front of the Quraysh caravans. They killed every one of the Quraysh they captured. They took all caravans that passed them. They prevented people from entering or leaving Mecca. The people of Quraysh were obliged to write to the Prophet (s) and ask him for kinship between him and them to protect them. They sent Abu Sufyan to the Prophet (s) to delegate with him. Abu Sufyan said to the Prophet (sws): "We have abandoned this condition of the treaty. Whoever resorts to you (from these oppressed Muslims), you can keep them with no liability."

Then the Prophet (s) wrote to Abu Baseer and Abu Jandal that they should come to him and those who were with them could join their families and they should not harm any of the Quraish who passed them, nor any of their caravans confiscate. When the book of the Prophet (sws) arrived, Abu Baseer was dying. He died while the book was still in his hands. Abu Jandal buried him there and built a mosque next to his grave.

Then Abu Jandal and some of his companions went to the Prophet (s) while the others returned to their families. The people of Quraysh henceforth felt security for their caravan. Therefore, when the Prophet (s) Hudaybiya requested the peace treaty, the Companions of the Prophet (s) who found it very difficult knew that the Prophet (s) is not speaking out of desire.

They lamented their situation to the Prophet (sws) and admitted that they were wrong; moreover, the Quraish appreciated the Prophet's situation with them as he accepted the truce to avoid bloodshed. They knew very well that he was truthful, righteous, kind and compassionate.

The Prophet's prayer for Ibn Ubayy the hypocrite

When the Prophet (sws) wanted to say the prayer for Ibn Ubbayy who was dead, 'Umar defied him and defied him severely and harshly.

Al-Bukhari mentioned hissahih(Vol.4 p.18 and Vol.3 p.92. It was also mentioned by Ahmad in his Musnad and by others.)a tradition narrated from Abdullah bin Umar who said: "When Abdullah bin Ubayy died, his son came to the Prophet (s) and said: "O Messenger of Allah, give me your shirt to cover my father with and please pray for him and call upon Allah to forgive him!” The Prophet (sws) gave him his shirt and said: “When you have finished with it, send for us.” When he had finished wrapping his father, he sent for that prophet (s).

The Prophet (sws) went to say prayer for (murdered) Abdullah bin Ubayy. Umar drew the Prophet (s) and said to him: Allah did not forbid you to pray to the hypocrites when He said to you:

“Ask forgiveness for her or don't ask forgiveness for her; even if you ask their forgiveness seventy times, Allah will not forgive them” (Quran 9:80)?”

Ibn Umar added:"After that this verse

“And never pray for anyoneof those who die and do not remain in their grave; Surely they have denied Allah and His Messenger and will die in their transgression" (Quran 9:84)
Erasrevealed toProphet (s) and then he stopped offering prayers for them.”

As if Umar understood this verse:
"QuestionsForgive them or not ask forgiveness for them..."
forbidden to pray for hypocrites. In theIn fact, this verse had not forbidden it. We will explain this shortly. When Umar saw that the Prophet (sws) got up to offer prayer for the dead hypocrite, he thought that he had contradicted the verse forbidding such prayer and therefore Umar could not control his anger. He denied this action of the Prophet (s) and then dragged him to prevent him from saying this prayer.

Allah forbid! Away from Him and away from His Messenger! The verse:
“Ask forgiveness for her or notask forgiveness for them; even if you ask their forgiveness seventy times, Allah will not forgive them.”
did not constitute any prohibition. It only informed whether the Prophet (s) asked Allah to forgive the hypocrites or did not ask Him to forgive them; it would be the same for them and would not benefit them in the slightest.

The ummah unanimously agreed that the prohibition on prayer for hypocrites was determined by this verse:
"And never pray for one of them who dies and does not remain in his grave" (Quran 9:84)
and that this verse hadwas revealed after this event according to umma consensus. However, the tradition of Ibn 'Umar clearly showed this fact; that the verse forbidding prayer for hypocrites was revealed after this event; therefore the Prophet (sws) did not pay attention to this resistance but ignored it because of his great insight and wisdom.

When 'Umar was too insistent on trying to stop the Prophet (s) from saying this prayer by making bad statements that it was not for someone like 'Umar to say someone like the Prophet (s) said the Prophet (s) : O Umar, stay away from me! I was inspired. I've already been told:

apologize for themor do not ask forgiveness for them; even if you ask their forgiveness seventy times, Allah will not forgive them” (Quran 9:80).

If I knew that, if I ask Allah for more thanseventy times to forgive them, he will forgive them, I will have done more.” Then the Prophet (s) offered prayers for Ibn Ubayy, attended his funeral and stood at his grave.”

(It was mentioned by al-Bukhari, Muslim, at-Tarmithi, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ibn Jareer, Ibn Abu Hatim, Ibn Mardwayh and others. Consult Kanzol Ummal by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Vol. 1, p. 247.)

When the Prophet (sws) offered prayer for Ibn Ubayy, he acted as he should in dealing with people because of his appearance. Ibn Ubayy was not one of the disbelievers who denied Islam. He apparently accepted Islam and proclaimed itgraubut he practiced hypocrisy, and yet it was not forbidden to pray for hypocrites; therefore, the Prophet (sws) prayed for him because of his apparent faith and to reconcile his people (the al-Khazraj tribe), among whom a thousand men soon became Muslims. Therefore, the Prophet's shirt and his prayer for this man brought a great achievement to the Muslims.

Then Umar regretted his haste and often said thereafter: 'I have made a mistake in Islam which I have never made; The Prophet (s) wanted to pray for Abdullah bin Ubayy, but I pulled his clothes and said to him: “By Allah, Allah did not command you. Allah said:

"Ask for her forgiveness or don't askforgiveness for them; even if you ask their forgiveness seventy times, Allah will not forgive them.”

ÖThe Messenger of Allah said: "Allah has given me the opportunity to say:"Ask forgiveness for her or don't askforgiveness for themand I chose..."

(Mentioned by Ibn Abu Hatim by ash-Shi'bi of Umar and mentioned in Kanzol Ummal and Muntakhab Kanzol Ummal printed in the margin of Ahmad's Musnad.)

The Prophet's prayers for some of the believers

Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani said in hisinquiry, Volume 4: “Al-Baghawai and Abu Ahmad al-Hakim mentioned a tradition narrated from Isma'eel bin Ayyash, and at-Tabarani mentioned a tradition from Baqiyya; both narrated from Buhayr bin Sa'd from Khalid bin Ma'dan that Abu Atiyya had said:
“A man died in the time of the Prophet (sws). Some said (meaning Umar): "O Messenger of Allah, do not pray for him!" The Prophet (s) said: "Has anyone seen him doing any good?" Someone said: "Yes, he gave us some nights held up." Then the Prophet (sws) said the prayer for him and attended the burial to the grave. He covered it with earth and said (to the dead man): Your companions think that you will belong to the people of Hell, but I testify that you will belong to the people of Paradise. Then he said to Umar: "Do not ask about the actions of men, but ask about the unseen (or the nature of men)."

Ibn Hajar also mentioned this tradition in hisinquirywhile we are talking about Abul Munthir Biography. He said: “Mutayyan mentioned a narration from Muhammad bin Harb al-Wasiti from Hammad bin Khalid from Hisham bin Sa'd from Yazeed bin Tha'lab from Abul Munthir who said that the Prophet (sws) poured earth into the grave three times has.

At-Tabarani detailed the narration of Amr bin Abu at-Tahir bin as-Sarh from his father from Abdullah bin Nafi' that Hisham bin Sa'd had said: "Once a man came to the Prophet (sws) and said: " O Messenger of Allah, so and so has died and we want you to pray for him.”
Umar said to the Prophet (s) : He is dissolute; don't pray for him!”
The man said: "O Messenger of Allah, he was among the guards that night when you were there."

The Prophet (sws) went (to offer prayer for the dead) and I followed him. When the funeral was over, the Prophet (sws) poured earth over the grave three times and said: "People think badly of him and I think well."
Umar said: "O Messenger of Allah, how is this?"
The Prophet (s) said: "O 'Umar, please be quiet! Whoever fights in the cause of Allah deserves to be in Paradise.”

Heaven is for monotheists

The Prophet (s) brought the good news to the believers that Paradise would be the reward for loyal belief in the Oneness of Allah. He announced this good news to the people to show them the end of the monotheists and to encourage believers to keep their faith.

He ordered Abu Huraira to proclaim this among the people. He said to him: “Go and tell everyone you meet; whoever faithfully bears witness that there is no god but Allah, he will be among the people of Paradise.” The first person Abu Hurairah met was Umar. He asked what the problem was. Abu Hurairah told 'Umar what the Prophet (sws) ordered him to do.

Abu Hurayra said - as mentioned in Muslimsahih, Volume 1: “…and then Umar hit me in the chest and I fell to the ground. He said: "Go back!" I went back to the Prophet (sws) and started to cry. Umar followed me. The Prophet (sws) asked me: "O Abu Hurairah, what is your problem?" I said: "I found Umar and told him what you told me, but he hit me on the chest until I fell to the ground fell and he asked me to come back."

The Prophet (s) said to 'Umar: "Why did you do that?" 'Umar said: "O Messenger of Allah, did you really send Abu Hurayra to say to everyone who faithfully testifies that there is no god but Allah that he would be among the people of Paradise?”
The Prophet (s) said: "Yes, I have."
Umar said to the Prophet (sws): "Don't do that! I'm afraid people could count on it. May they continue to do good deeds.”
The Prophet (s) said: "Leave them!"

An-Nawawi found an excuse here to justify this objection from 'Umar. He quoted from Judge Ayyadh and others. He said that 'Umar did not contradict the Prophet (s) in this case or that he was denying the matter that the Prophet (s) sent Abu Hurayra with, but he feared that the people would be able to rely on this good news and then they would give it up to do good. So Umar thought that it would be better and more beneficial for people to keep this matter secret than to inform them about it.

This caused him to hit Abu Huraira and bring him back. And that made him say to the Prophet (sws): "Do not do that" to forbid him to carry out the command he had given to inform the believers of the good news among the people of Paradise being.

This justification is no more than we have said that 'Umar preferred his own opinion to the clear judgments of the Prophet (s). it's just a personal matterijtihadbefore a clear divine text. In fact, this event is not just about Umar; however, after being beaten, he forced Abu Hurayra to desist from what the Prophet (sws) commanded him to do. Moreover, Umar was not satisfied with this and asked the Prophet (sws) himself to drop the matter. He boldly said to the Prophet (sws): "Don't do that!"

But the Prophet (sws) was patient with him, as he always was, and treated him with understanding. He was as Allah had said about him:

“So it is due to the mercy of AllahYou are gentle with them, and if you were rude and hard-hearted, they would surely have scattered around you. therefore forgive them and ask forgiveness for them and consult with them on the matter; so if you decide, put your trust in Allah; surely Allah loves those who trust (in Him).” (Quran 3:159).

This resistance had no effect on the Prophet (sws). He himself reported this good news to his Ummah after having relied on Allah. Umar himself, Othman bin Affan, Ma'ath bin Jabal, Ubada bin as-Samit, Utban bin Malik and many others heard this from the Prophet (sws).(Consult a Sahih of Muslim)

It was one of the needs of different sects of Muslims.

How strange and surprising it was that great scholars like Allama an-Nawawi, Judge Ayyadh and their ilk said that the correction in this case lay with Umar and they pretended that the Prophet (sws) had confirmed Umar's opinion. Glory to Allah! We have nothing but refuge in Him!

Here is what an-Nawawi said: "In this tradition (Abu Huraira's tradition about this event) there is evidence showing that if an absolute Imam thinks one thing and one of his followers thinks the opposite, then the defeated follower has his opinion must show the superior magnet to think about it. If it seems that the subordinate's opinion is correct, the superior must adopt it; otherwise he must explain to his follower the shortcomings of his opinion..."(Sharh Sahih Muslim, Volume 1, S. 404.)

This speech would be heard if the supreme leader were not a prophet, but if he were a prophet then the entire ummah should obey him and believe in him sincerely and without suspicion. Allah said:

"And whatever the Messenger gives you,Accept it, and whatever it forbids, stay away and beware of (your duty to) Allah. surely Allah is severe in retribution (of evil)” (Quran 59:7)e:

"For sureit is the word of an honorable messenger. The power processor that has pride of place in the Lord of the Domain. One who is obedient and faithful in trust. And his companion did not go mad." (Quran 81:19-22)e:

“Surely it is the word brought by an honored messenger. And it is not the word of a poet; little is what you believe. Not the word of a fortune teller; little do you care. It is a revelation from the Lord of the Worlds" (Quran 69:40-43)e:

"He doesn't speak out of desire either. It is nothing but revelation that is revealed. The Lord of mighty power taught him" (Quran 53:3-5)e:

"Where are you going. It's just a reminder to the nations. To those of you who like to go further. And you don't like it except that Allah, the Lord ofworlds" (Quran 81:26-29).

The Pleasure of Hajj

The Prophet (s) practiced this pleasure(While umrah (minor hajj) and major hajj are offered together (in the same year), after performing some hajj rituals, Muslims may sleep with their wives or practice temporary marriages. This is called "the pleasure of Hajj.")during the Hajj rite. He ordered the Muslims to practice it after Allah commanded it. Allah said in the Surah of al-Baqara:

“Whoever benefits from combining visit (umrah) with pilgrimage (must make), whose offering is easy to obtain; but whoever does not find a gift must fast three days during the pilgrimage and seven days on the return; these (make) ten (days) complete; this is for one whose family is not present in the Holy Mosque” (Quran 2:196).

Ibn Abdul Birr al-Qurtubi said: There is no difference of opinion among the ulema that this verse(Who benefits fromsuitable for Umrah(Umrah is little Hajj.)with the pilgrimage…)refers tothe Umrah practiced during the months of Hajj but before the (major) Hajj.”(Share Sahih Muslim von an-Nawawi, Bd. 7, S. 46.)Umrah is obligatory for people living forty-eight miles in all directions from Mecca.

In this type of Hajj, pleasure (having sex with the woman or practicing a temporary marriage) is permitted between the two Ihrams.(Ihram is the holy state that a Muslim must enter before undertaking a pilgrimage, during which intercourse, shaving, cutting nails and various other acts are forbidden.)(of Umrah and Great Hajj). This is what 'Umar and some of his followers disliked.

Abu Musa al-Ash'ari permitted this pleasure in his fatwas. One day a man said to him: “Pay attention to some of your fatwas. They do not know what Ameerul Mo'mineen (Umar) has changed (from judgments).' When Abu Musa met Umar later, he asked him about it and 'Umar said, 'I know that the Prophet (sws) and his Companions took this pleasure practiced, but I feared that the men would stay (sleep) with their wives until they offered Hajj while his (...) dripped.”(Musnad de Ahmad, Bd. 1 p. 50.)

In another form of Abu Musa, 'Umar had said: " is the Sunnah(It means pleasure during Hajj.)of the Messenger of Allah, but I am afraid that they (the pilgrims) will remain sleeping with their wives and then perform Hajj with them (and continue to do so).”(Musnad de Ahmad, Band 1, S. 49.)

Narrated Abu Nadhra: "Ibn 'Abbas permitted people to practice this pleasure, but Ibn az-Zubayr forbade people to do it. I mentioned this to Jabir bin Abdullah and he said: We practiced this pleasure during the time of the Prophet (s) but when Umar became the Caliph he said: Allah allowed his Messenger to do things as he wanted , and the Qur'an was revealed as it was! Offer Hajj and Umrah as Allah has commanded you to do(By Allah, I don't know what to say! Did the Prophet (sws) perform Hajj and Umrah contrary to what Allah commanded him? Was Umar more aware of Allah's commands and judgments than the Prophet (sws)?!)But you have to stop sleeping with women. Whenever I find a man who practices temporary marriage, I will stone him.”(Sahih de Muslim, Band 1, S. 467.)

One day he (Umar) gave a speech to the people from the top of the minbar and said openly: “In the time of the Messenger of Allah two pleasures were practiced, but I forbade them and punished them; the pleasure of Hajj (sexual intercourse during Hajj) and temporary marriage”.

(This famous saying of 'Umar has been mentioned by most historians. Consult Tafseer of ar-Razi if you have verse No. 196 of Sura al-Baqara (2) and verse No. 24 of Sura an-Nisa' (4).)

In another tradition, Umar said:“O people, three things were practiced in the time of the Prophet (sws), but I forbid and punish them for them; the pleasures of hajj, temporary marriage and (hayya ala khayril amal)(Come to the best promotions! It's part of Azan)(Share it on Tajreed from al-Qoushaji.)

All Ahlul Bayt (as) and all his followers denied this to 'Umar and many of the great Companions did not agree with him in this.

Muslim mentioned in hissahih(Bd. 1 S. 472-475.)a tradition narrated by Shaqeeq saying:

“Othman forbade people to practice this pleasure, but Ali allowed people to practice it. Othman said something to Ali and then Ali said to him: "O Othman, you know that we practiced this pleasure in the time of the Messenger of Allah." Othman said: "Yes, we do, but we were afraid!"

Muslim also mentioned in hissahihque Sa'eed bin al-Musayyab Havia hier:

“Once Ali and Othman met in Asfan. Othman forbade people from temporary marriages and Umrah. Ali said to him: "Why do you forbid something that the Messenger of Allah did?" Othman said, "Leave us alone!" Ali said, "I can't let you..."

Ghunaym bin Qays said – as insahihfrom Muslim:

“I once asked Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas about temporary marriage (during Umrah) and he said: “We practice it, but this man(He was referring to Mo'awiya bin Abu Sufyan who had forbidden people to practice the pleasure of Umrah by following the same path as Umar and Othman.)believe not in the Lord of the Throne.”

Abul Ala' narrated from Mutrif that Imran bin Husayn said to him:

“I am going to tell you something today that Allah can use for you later. Know that the Messenger of Allah (sws) assigned tithes (zakat) to a group of his relatives. No verses were revealed to overrule this, nor did the Prophet (sws) forbid it until he left for a better world. But then everyone followed their own opinion.”

Hameed bin Hilal narrated that Mutrif said: "Once Imran bin Husayn said to me:

"I will tell you something that Allah can do for you. The Messenger of Allah (sws) offered Umrah and Hajj together and he did not forbid it to people and no verses were revealed forbidding it until he died..."

Qatada narrated that Mutrif said:

"Imran bin Husayn sent for me when he fell ill before he died. He said to me: “I will tell you some traditions that Allah can benefit you after me. If I live keep them secret, and if I die you can tell them if you want. Know that the Messenger of Allah (s) performed Umrah and Hajj together and therefore no verses of the Qur'an were revealed to cancel this, nor did the Prophet (s) forbid it. then a man(He means Umar.)decided according to his own opinion as he wanted”.

In another way, Qatada narrated from Mutrif bin ash-Shakheer that Imran bin Husayn said:

"Know that the Messenger of Allah offered Umrah and Hajj together and neither the Qur'an nor the Prophet (sws) forbade us to do so. Then a man decides according to his own opinion as he will.”

Imran bin Muslim narrated to Abu Raja that Imran bin Hussain had the following:

"The verse 'the pleasure of Hajj' was revealed in the Qur'an and the Messenger of Allah (sws) commanded us to practice it (the pleasure). Neither the Qur'an has canceled this verse, nor has the Prophet (sws) forbidden us to practice it until his death. Then a man decides according to his own opinion as he will.”

This tradition was mentioned by Muslim in hissahihnarrated in many other ways by Imran bin Hussayn, but we will not mention them all. Al-Bukhari also mentioned this tradition of Imran bin Husayn in hissahihBd.1 S.187.

Malik bin Anass mentioned in hisI will(Vol. 1, S.130.)A tradition narrated from Muhammad bin Abdullah bin al-Harith bin Nawfal bin Abdul Muttalib that he heard Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas and ad-Dhahhak bin Qayss mention the pleasure of Umrah in the year when Mo'awiya bin Abu Sufyan went to offer the Hajj. Ad-Dhahhak bin Qays said:

"No one does this (practising pleasures) unless he is unaware of the judgments of Allah." Sa'd said, "What evil have you said, O my nephew!" Ad-Dhahhak said: "Umar bin al-Khattab forbade this." Sa'd said: "The Messenger of Allah (sws) practiced and we practiced in his time."(See Sharh Muwatta' Malik of az-Zarqani, Vol. 2, p. 178 for the author's explanation of this tradition.)

Ahmad mentioned in hisMusnadwhat Ibn Abbas said:

"The Prophet (s) performed the pleasure of Hajj." Urwa bin az-Zubayr said: "Abu Bakr and Umar forbade it." Ibn Abbas asked: "What did Urwa say?" It was said: "He said, that Abu Bakr and 'Umar have forbidden the enjoyment of Hajj." Ibn Abbas said: "I see that they will perish. I say that the Prophet (sws) practiced it and they say that Abu Bakr and 'Umar forbade it!"(Siehe Jami' Bayan al-Ilm de Ibn Abdul Birr und Mukhtasar Jami' Bayan al-Ilm de al-Muhammisani S.226.)

Gute Narrated:

"Once Urwa said to Ibn Abbas: 'Don't you fear Allah? Why do you allow pleasure (temporary marriage)? Ibn Abbas said: "Ask your mother, O Urwa!" Urwa said: "Abu Bakr and Umar did not practice it." Ibn Abbas said: "By Allah, I see that you will not repent until Allah tortures you. We tell you about the Prophet (s) and you tell us about Abu Bakr and Umar!..."(ibid.)

Muslim mentioned in hissahih(Bd.1, S.479.)a tradition that speaks of someone asking Ibn Abbas about the enjoyment of Hajj and Ibn Abbas allowing it while Ibn az-Zubayr forbade it. Ibn Abbas said:

"This is the mother of Ibn az-Zubayr who narrates that the Messenger of Allah (sws) permitted it. you can go to her The man said, "We went to her. She was a blind fat girl. She said: "Yes, the Messenger of Allah (sws) permitted it."

At-Tarmithi mentioned in hissahih(Bd.1, S.157.)that once Abdullah bin Umar was asked about the joy of Hajj and he said that it was permissible.

The questioner said to him:

“But your father forbade it!” Abdullah bin Umar said: “You see, if my father forbade it and the Messenger of Allah (s) did it, should we follow my father or follow the Messenger of Allah (s)? ' The man said: 'We should follow the Messenger of Allah (sws)'. Abdullah bin Umar said: 'The Messenger of Allah (sws) practiced this.'

There are many other true traditions in the Hadith books that deny this act of 'Umar (by forbidding the enjoyment of Hajj).

In the Farewell Hajj (the last Hajj of the Prophet (s)) there was clear evidence on this matter. Refer tosahihfrom muslim(Bd.1, S.157.)to see that the Prophet (sws) announced it before more than a hundred Muslims; Men and women of the Ummah who came from different countries to perform Hajj with the Prophet (sws).

When the Prophet (sws) announced this, Suraqa bin Malik bin Khath'am stood up and asked:

"O Messenger of Allah, is this pleasure only for this year or forever?" The Prophet (sws) crossed his fingers and said: "Umrah entered the Hajj, Umrah entered the Hajj forever, forever."

Imam 'Ali (as) came from Yemen (during Hajj season) and found that Fatima (saws) had postponed her Ihram and put on colorful clothes and darkened her eyes with kohl. He denied it. She said:

"My father told me to do that." Imam Ali (s) went to the Prophet (s) and inquired about the matter. The Prophet (s) said: It is true. She's real..."

temporary marriage

Allah and His Messenger made temporary marriage law and Muslims practiced it during the time of the Prophet (s) until he left for a better world and they practiced it thereafter during the reign of Abu Bakr until his death. When Umar became caliph, Muslims still practiced temporary marriages until one day he banned them when he said over the minbar:

“Two pleasures were practiced in the time of the Messenger of Allah, but I forbid and punish them for it; the pleasures of hajj and temporary marriage.”

(Ar-Razi protested in his book en-Tafseer al-Kabir when he spoke about the verse (Those who benefit you, give them your dowry as it is intended) against Umar's ban on temporary marriages.)

Allah permitted temporary marriage when he said in the Holy Quran:

“So for those you benefit from, givethem their talents as intended" (Quran 4:24).

The typewedding aIslam is four. Allah has prescribed them in four verses in the sura of an-Nisa' (women). We describe them in our book on temporary marriages.
As for the true traditions about temporary marriages, there are many and they have been mentioned in all hadith books.

Muslim mentioned in hissahih(Bd.1 S.467)a tradition narrated from Abu Nadhra which states: "Ibn 'Abbas often permitted the practice of temporary marriages, while Ibn az-Zubayr forbade them. This was mentioned to Jabir bin Abdullah.

He said:

"It happened before me. During the time of the Messenger of Allah, we often practiced temporary marriages, but when Umar became the Caliph,(This proverb clearly shows that the prohibition on temporary marriage was not given before 'Umar.)He said: "Allah permitted His Messenger as He willed by His will.(If only that word could justify a ban on temporary marriage! Did 'Umar think that this matter was of particular concern to the Prophet (sws) or was it only of his time? Certainly not! Muhammad's lawful things are lawful until the Day of Resurrection, and his lawless things are lawful until the Day of Resurrection.)Complete hajj and minor hajj and avoid temporary marriages. I will stone anyone who practices temporary marriage.” (Stoning is one of the punishments from heaven that can only be legislated by a prophet. Anyone who believes in the permissibility of temporary marriage has made his or her decree from the Book and the Sunna. If he is correct in his conclusion, he cannot be blamed and if he is unintentionally wrong, he is considered unclear and therefore cannot be punished.)

We study this matter thoroughly and carefully, and then point out the truth in our books;al-Fusul al-Muhimma(the important chapters),Masa'il Fiqhiyya(legal issues),Musa Jarallah answersand what was published in al-Irfan magazine, volume 36, part ten, in which we covered all sides of the subject. We explain this in eight chapters:

1. The nature of temporary marriage with its legal requirements and limitations.

2. The Ummah's consensus on their legality in Islam.

3. The Koran's proof of its legitimacy.

4. Its legality according to Sunna.

5. The claim of those who say it has been revoked and its evidence.

6. Narrations showing that Caliph Umar revoked it.

The Companions and their successors who denied this by the Caliph.

(Among them was Abdul Melik bin Abdul Aziz bin Jurayj Abu Khalid al-Mekki who was one of the famous scholars among the successors of the Companions. Ibn Khilikan mentioned his biography in his book Wafiyyat al-A'yan, Ibn Sa'd in his Tabaqat, vol. 5, p. 361, Ibn al-Qaysarani in his book al-Jam' Bayna Rijal as-Sahihayn, p. 314 and ath-Thahabi in his Mizan and he said about him: 'He is one of the trustworthy scholars that everyone trusts. He married ninety women in temporary marriages. He considered a temporary marriage permissible. He was the jurist of Mecca in his day.”

Al-Ma'moon also denied the prohibition of temporary marriage (by Umar) during his reign and ordered his officials to announce their permissibility - as mentioned by Ibn Khilikan in his book Wafiyyat al-A'yan when he wrote about the biography from Yahya bin Aktham spoke. Muhammad bin Mansoor and Abul Ayna' once arrived in al-Ma'moon. They found him brushing his teeth and saying angrily (repeating Umar's statement): "In the time of the Messenger of Allah and the time of Abu Bakr two pleasures were practiced, but I (Umar) have forbidden them! Who art thou (this is the supplement of al-Ma'moon), O scarab, to forbid what the Messenger of Allah and Abu Bakr practiced? Muhammad bin Mansur wanted to speak to al-Ma'moon, but Abul Ayna' motioned to him and said, "A man saying this about Umar bin al-Khattab, how can we speak to him?!" You didn't speak to him. Then Yahya bin Aktham came to him and warned him that there might be an uproar (if he allowed the temporary marriage)...")

8. The opinion of the Shias and their evidence in this matter.

We only intend to show the truth in our study on this subject. Our evidence was derived from the Book, the Sunnah and the consensus of the Ummah. Let sincere researchers ponder what we have written on this subject and then be free to decide whether it is permissible or not.

change azan

We researched the traditions related to thecall to prayer(Azan is the call to prayer (in its time).)during the time of the Prophet (sws) and we do not find this statement"Prayer is better than sleep"as part ofcall to prayer. In fact, this statement was not in thecall to prayereven in the time of Abu Bakr. Umar ordered this explanation to be added to thatcall to prayerafter going through some period of his caliphate where he liked it and admired him for being in the caliphatecall to prayerof Fajr prayer (dawn). He noticed this and ordered the people to report it by calling thecall to prayer. Many true narrations on this subject have been narrated from the infallible Imams (S).

The Hadith books of other infallible Imams (S) had many such traditions. Malik mentioned in hisI will: "Once the caller fromcall to prayercame to Umar bin al-Khattab to announce the time of Fajr prayer and found Umar sleeping. He said to him:"Prayer is better than sleep." Umar admired this and ordered him to add it to Fajr's Azan.

said Az-Zarqani in his bookTo you al-Muwatta'(Bd.1 S.25.)when commenting on this word:

"Ad-Darqutni mentioned this tradition in his Sunan de Waqee' de al-Umari de Nafi' from Ibn 'Umar that 'Umar told his interlocutor (fromcall to prayer):

"If you say "Come to success!"(Hayya al-falah.)Say in Fajr prayer Azan: Prayer is better than sleep! Prayer is better than sleeping!” It was also narrated by Sufyan from Muhammad bin Ajlan from Nafi’ from Ibn Umar from Umar.”

This tradition was also mentioned by Ibn Shayba of Hisham bin Urwa and has been mentioned by some other Sunni scholars.

The (false) narration of Muhammad bin Khalid bin Abdullah al-Wasiti from his father from Abdurrahman bin Isshaq from az-Zuhri of Salim had no value that his father had said:

“Once the Prophet (sws) asked Muslims what should attract their attention at the time of prayer. Some of them suggested using a trumpet, but the Prophet (s) did not like it because it was used by the Jews. Some others suggested using a bell, but the Prophet (sws) didn't like it either because it was used by Christians.

That night, a man from the Ansar named Abdullah bin Zayd and Umar bin al-Khattab were inspired by the call (azan) in their dreams. That same night, Abdullah bin Zayd al-Ansari came to the Prophet (sws) and told him what he had seen in a dream. The Prophet (sws) ordered Bilal to announce him as Theazan. Then Bilal added: "Prayer is better than sleep" and the Prophet (sws) approved it." Ibn Maya mentioned this tradition in his Sunan.

This tradition is invalid because it was narrated from Muhammad bin Khalid bin Abdullah al-Wasiti, of whom Yahya said: "He is an immoral man". Again he said of him: "He is nothing (unreliable)!"

Ibn Adiy said of him: "Ahmad and Yahya denied their traditions, especially when he told about his father. He had denied many other traditions.” Abu Zar'a said of him: “He is weak (unreliable).” Yahya bin Mo'een said: "Muhammad bin Khalid bin Abdullah is a liar. If you find him, hit him!”

Ath-Thahabi spoke about him in hisScaleand mentioned the criticisms and shortcomings attributed to him by scholars.

Since this tradition was the tradition narrated by Abu Mahthoora when he said:

"I said: 'O Messenger of Allah, please teach me Theazan?' The Prophet (sws) rubbed my head and said to me: 'You say in a loud voice 'Allah is great, Allah is great' and then you say in a low voice : "I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah", then you say aloud: “I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, come to prayer, come to prayer , come to success, come to success.” is the Fajr prayer you then say: “Prayer is better than sleep, prayer is better than sleep, Allah is great, Allah is great, there is no god but Allah , There is no God except Allah".

Abu Dawud mentioned this tradition from Abu Mahthoora in two ways; one from Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Abu Mahthoora from his father from his grandfather, the other from Othman bin as-Sa'ib from his father, which was unknown as ath-Thahabi had said in his Mizan.

Muslim mentioned this tradition to Abu Mahthura in hissahihbut there was no such statement "prayer is better than sleep."

You will soon see the narration mentioned by Abu Dawud and others narrated by Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Zayd about itcall to prayerwhich Bilal proclaimed after being dictated to him by Abdullah bin Zayd. There was no "prayer is better than sleep," although there wascall to prayerof Fajr prayer.

Abu Mahthura was one of the freed captives of Mecca(When the Muslims conquered Mecca, the Prophet (sws) forgave the polytheists and released them.)and he was one of those whom the Prophet (sws) gave him to reconcile them to Islam. When the Prophet (s) returned victorious from Hunayn, he was the most hated thing by Abu Mahthura and his commands and principles were the most hated things for him too. Abu Mahthura often mocked the Prophet's caller (who announced Azan), but the bag of silver coins given by the Prophet (s) Hunayn's boots which the Prophet (s) scattered among the freed captives who were his enemies and so on He fought him for a long time, his great morality towards those who had proclaimed the shahada among the hypocrites, in addition to his severity towards the infidels and that the Arabs were beginning to become Muslims, group by group, all this forced Abu Mahthoora and his like to proclaim this Shahada through their tongues while their hearts were still occupied by idols. He did not emigrate until he died in Mecca.

(See al-Isaba, a biography of Abu Mahthura.)Allah is more aware of your inner self!

The Prophet (s) had spoken a word about three men; Abu Mahthura, Abu Hurairah and Samra bin Jundub. He warned them and said:"The last of you to die will be in Hell."(See Samra's biography in al-Istee'ab, al-Isaba and other books.)

This was a wise way of the Prophet (s) to prevent hypocrites from managing the affairs of the Muslims. Since the Prophet (sws) was aware of the inside of these three men, he wanted his Ummah to doubt the three and then avoid them. He wanted his Ummah not to entrust any of them with any matter of Islam and Muslims. He said that the one who would die after his two friends would be in Hell, but he generalized without giving details about any of them that any of the three men could be the one who would be in Hell .

Days and nights passed and the word of the Prophet (sws) remained as it was. The Prophet (sws) went to a better world but without specifying his word; hence sensible men were obliged to keep all three men away from any matter of social rights in Islam entrusted to the trustworthy and trustworthy people of the Ummah. If these three men were not the same when it comes to being avoided, the Prophet (sws) would definitely appoint one of them so as not to harm the others.

If you say: The Prophet (sws) may have defined one of them with something, but that particular thing has been ignored because of the long time that has passed.
We say that if there were a definition specifying any of them, then the three would not have feared that warning in the same way.
(As those studying their business after this threat will know.)

There was no difference in this matter if one of them was not commissioned or if this assignment became unknown because the result would be the same for us. We would look at all three in the same way.

If you say: The one who was said to be in Hell could not be known before the death of the first and the second, and so the remnant after the two would be the one that the Prophet (sws) referred to with related to his statement and so the statement of the Prophet (sws) would not be general or ambiguous.

We say: First, it is impossible for the Prophets (S) to hide or delay the truth until the necessary time has passed. In this matter, the time required was related to the threat and the Prophet (s) would have appointed it if any of the three had had respect because men, having become Muslims, would be judged by civil rights as imamates in performing prayers, witnesses in court proceedings, issuance of fatwas, trials and the like that required justice, truthfulness and piety.

If these three men did not deserve to be removed from all these civil rights and offices, the Prophet (sws) would not hesitate to reveal the truth about them. Far be it from the Prophet (s) to prevent anyone from getting his justice and far from him to shame an innocent person and keep him in that shame which he does not deserve until he (in front of his two friends) dies!

And second, by Allah, we have tried our best to research and study the established facts, but we could not find out which of these three men died before the others. Statements about the dates of her death have been contradicted(Some historians have said that Samra died in the fifty-eighth year of Hijrah and Abu Huraira in the fifty-ninth, while other historians have said that Abu Huraira died in the fifty-seventh year of Hijrah, and so on for all three. As for the similar dates, some historians have said that the three died in fifty-nine hijra without mentioning the time, day, or month in which they died.)or similar and usual. Therefore, we could not rely on any of them.

Third: the high morals of the Prophet (s) about whom Allah said:

Surely a messenger has come to youfrom your midst; painful to him is his fall in fear, overprotective of you; to the believers (is) merciful” (Quran 9:128)

would notlet him speak such severe words to an innocent whom he respected. The Prophet (s) who had an exalted personality and manners would never surprise an innocent person with something bad that he did not deserve. If there was a good one among these three men, the Prophet (sws) would not involve him in this nasty surprise; but it was revealed to him by Allah to warn the Ummah against these men and their kind.

"Not untilspeak for pleasure. It is nothing but revelation that is revealed” (Quran 53:3-4).

He who knew the opinion of our Sunni brothers of the four sects about starting aazanandiqama

(A necessary call to prayer.)and as for the legislation, I wouldn't be surprised if they agreed to add or omit it. They thought that Azanandiqama was not prescribed by Allah to be revealed to the Prophet (s). They did not think that the Prophet (s) had announced them as divine rites ordained by Allah, but they were only the result of dreams seen by some of the Companions, as they had narrated them in their traditions, which they believed to be true and kept recurring.

Here are some of the traditions they believe to be the truest.

Abu Umayr bin Anas narrated from some of his Ansar uncles that:

“The Prophet (s) thought of prayers; how to get people to come together to offer at their prescribed times. He was told, "Put up a banner and when the people see it, some of them will announce it's time to pray." He didn't approve of the idea. Some people mentioned the trumpet to him, but he didn't like it and said it was used by the Jews. Others suggested using a bell. He said it was used by Christians. At first he didn't like it, but then he had a wooden bell made.

When Abdullah bin Zayd saw that the Prophet (sws) was concerned about the matter, he began to think a lot about it. He was inspired in his sleep by a vision that showed him how to make azan. He went to the Prophet (sws) and said to him: "O Messenger of Allah, while I was sleeping lightly someone came to me and taught me azan." 'Umar bin al-Khattab had this vision in his sleep but he kept it for twenty days secret and then informed the Prophet (s) about it. The Prophet (s) said to him:

"What stopped you from telling me that?" Umar said: "Abdullah bin Zayd preceded me when he told you and that is why I was shy." The Prophet (s) said: "O Bilal, get up and do what Abdullah bin Zayd will tell you!" Then Bilal announced the Azan…”(It was mentioned by Abu Dawud in his Sunan, volume 1, chap. Beginning of Azan and has been mentioned in many other hadith books. Sunni scholars consider it a true tradition.)

Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Zayd al-Ansari said that his father Abdullah bin Zayd had said:

"When the Messenger of Allah (sws) ordered a bell to be built to gather people for prayer, while I was sleeping I saw someone coming towards me with a bell in his hand. I asked him, "Are you selling this bell?" He said, "What are you going to do with it?" I said, "Let's ask for prayers on this." He said, "Would you like me to lead you to something better?" I said, "Yes, please!"He said: You say: Allah is great, Allah is great, Allah is great, Allah is great, I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, come to prayer, come to prayer, come to success, come to success, Allah is great, Allah is great, there is no god but Allah.”

(This azan - as stated by the narrators who transmitted this tradition from Abdullah bin Zayd - was the first azan in Islam. As you can see there is no such thing as "praying is better than sleeping" although it applied to Fajr prayer. So where did you come from to be part of Azan O Muslims?!)

After a while he said to me: “When you get up to start prayer you say: Allah is great, Allah is great, I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that there is no god besides Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, come to prayer, come to prosperity, the time of prayer has come, the time of prayer has come, Allah is great, Allah is great, there is no god but Allah.

In the morning I went to the Prophet (sws) and told him what I had seen in my sleep. He said: “It is a true inshallah vision. Go with Bilal and tell him what you saw while you were sleeping. Let him announce it, for his voice is sweeter than yours. I went with Bilal and started teaching him Theazan and then he announced. Umar heard Theazan from his house. He came, dragging his clothes, and said: "O Messenger of Allah, I swear by Him Who sent you with the truth, that I saw what he saw...(Mentioned by Abu Dawud as-Sajistani in his Sunan, at-Tarmithi in his Sahih, Ibn Hayyan in his Sunan, Ibn Khuzayma in his Sunan, Ibn Maya in his Sunan and other hadith scholars.)

Malik abbreviated the tradition in his Muwatta'. He mentioned that Yahya bin Sa'eed had said:

“The Prophet (s) wanted to use two pieces of wood(Az-Zarqani, in his book Sharh al-Muwatta', commenting on this tradition, said: “It is the bell; a long piece of wood struck with a smaller one to produce sound.” Az-Zarqani has a notable comment on the tradition of Abdullah bin Zayd here. I urge researchers to consult Sharh al-Muwatta', Vol. 1, pp. 120-125.)to gather people to offer the prayers after hitting each other. At that time, Abdullah bin Zayd al-Ansari had seen two pieces of wood while he was sleeping.

He said (while sleeping): "These two pieces of wood are like those with which the Messenger of Allah wants to gather people for prayer." It was said to him: "Do you not announce Azan for prayer?" He was taught Theazan in his sleep. In the morning he went to the Prophet (sws) and told him about it. Then the Prophet (s) ordered that Azan be proclaimed.”(For individuals consult Sharh al-Muwatta' from az-Zarqan.)

Ibn Abdul Birr disse:

“Some of the Companions had narrated the story of Abdullah bin Zayd about the beginning of Azan in different words but with similar meanings. The resources of these traditions are recurring and accepted..."(Sharh al-Muwatta' from az-Zarqan.)

When I comment on these traditions, I say:


the Prophet (s) would not have had to consult the people if he had issued the divine judgments of GodShariah. He had just followed the divine commands that Allah had revealed to him.

"Not untilspeak for pleasure. It is nothing but revelation that is revealed. The Lord of mighty power taught him” (Quran 53:3-5).

atthe prophets did not ask their people about itThe Divine Judgments:

"Not! They are honorable servants. They do not precede Him in words and act (only) according to His command" (Quran 21:26-27).

Undersaid to His Messenger and the last of His Prophets, Muhammad (sws):

“Say: I only follow what is revealedI of my Lord; These are clear proofs from their Lord and a guidance and mercy to a believing people" (Quran 7:203)e:

“Say: I don't think I should change that for myself; I follow nothing but what is revealed to me; I fear the punishment of a mighty day if I disobey my Lord" (Quran 10:15)e:

"Say: I am not the first of the Messengers and I do not know what will happen to me or to you: I only follow what has been revealed to me and I am but a mere warner" (Quran 46:9 ) .

Underwarned youMessenger in a hurry, too, with a tongue flick. He said:

Don't move your tongue with himhurry up with it. Surely in Us (returns) the gathering and recitation thereof. Therefore, when we have recited it, follow its recitation. Upon us (return) the explanation thereof” (Quran 75:16-19)

Underpraised the words of Hismessenger says:

“Verily it is the Worddelivered by an honored envoy. And it is not the word of a poet; little is what you believe. Not the word of a fortune teller; little do you care. That's ita revelation from the Lord of the worlds" (Quran 69:40-43)e:

"Verily, it is the word of an honorable messenger. The performance processor; to have a place of honor with the Lord of the Domain. One who is obedient and faithful in trust. And his companion did not go mad” (Quran 81:19-22).


Reason considers the consultation mentioned in these traditions to be nil. Consultation with humans plays no role in making divine laws; therefore it was impossible for the Prophet (s) to consult his Companions on the principles ofShariah. Did Allah need the opinion of His servants to determine His laws?Shariah?

"What if he had made itagainst Us some of the words. Surely we would have held him by the right hand. Then we would have definitely severed your aorta. And none of you could have withheld us from him" (Quran 69:44-47).

Yes, the Prophet (s) consulted with his companions on the affairs of this worldly life, how to face the enemy, war strategies and the like. He followed the saying of Allah:

“…and confer with them on the case; soWhen you have made up your mind, put your trust in Allah” (Quran 3:159).

nothis concerns the Prophet (s) to reconcilehis companions could consult them, though the revelation sufficed him far from the opinions of his companions; but as to the laws of religion, it was not possible for him but to follow revelation.

third party:

These narrations showed that the Prophet (sws) was confused and this could not have been possible for the infallible Prophet who was so close to Allah and whom Allah loved and preferred above all creatures in the world. These narrations showed the Prophet (sws) in a confused state until he needed the advice of the people; he once didn't like using a bell and so he ordered to use the bell and so he gave up the bell and submitted to the vision of Abdullah bin Zayd!

This was impossible for Allah and His Messenger, who was the teacher and last of the Prophets, and who was the custodian of Allah's mission and revelation. In fact, according to the consensus of the Ummah, the visions of others than the Prophets could not be trusted.


these traditions contradict each other and this leads to putting them aside, especially the two traditions just mentioned; that narrated by Abu Umayr bin Anass from some of his Ansar uncles and that narrated by Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Zayd from his father. I want you to think about this to see the contradiction between them, especially regarding Umar's vision!

These two traditions limit the vision to Ibn Zayd and Umar while the vision tradition is mentioned by at-Tabarani in his bookat-Tafsir al-Awsatshows that the vision (thecall to prayer) was also seen by Abu Bakr. There are other traditions showing that this vision was seen by fourteen men of the companions as inSharh at-Tanbihby al-Jubayli. It was also mentioned that those who had the vision that night, other than Umar, who was the only one of the Muhajireen, were seventeen men of the Ansar.

Another tradition says that Bilal saw the vision ofcall to prayerin addition. There are many other contradictions on this subject. Al-Halabi mentioned some of them that were so surprising and he tried to approach these contradictions but failed.(I Sweat Seera, Volume 2, Ch. azan.)


al-Bukhari and Muslim ignored this version. They hadn't mentioned it in theirssahihsneither Ibn Zayd nor Umar bin al-Khattab nor anyone else because it has not been proven to be true. You mentioned in yourssahihsthat Umar had said: "When the Muslims reached Medina, they assembled and fixed the prayer time without calling. One day they discussed this matter. Some of them said, "Let's use a bell like the Christians!" Others said, "Let's blow the trumpet like the Jews!" Then Umar said: "Why don't you send someone to call the prayer time?" The Prophet (sws) said: "O Bilal, get up and ask for prayer!" Then Bilal cried out.

That's all that was mentioned in thesahihsby al-Bukhari and Muslim in legislationcall to prayer. They ignored everything related to the beginning ofcall to prayermore than that. This tradition contradicts all previous traditions mentioned about the vision ofcall to prayer. This tradition shows that thecall to prayerit started from Umar's suggestion and not from his vision or the vision of Abdullah bin Zayd or anyone else.

This tradition also clearly shows that the Prophet (s) Bilal ordered them to be calledcall to prayerduring the deliberation meeting that 'Umar was present at, while these vision narrations show that the Prophet (s) Bilal ordered them to be calledcall to prayerat dawn when Ibn Zayd told the Prophet (s) about his vision which was one night after the consultation at least where 'Umar was not there but he heard itcall to prayerwhile he was in his house, and then he came, took off his robe and said, "I swear by him who sent you with the truth, that in my sleep I saw as he saw."

I adjure you to Allah, could you bring this tradition to them? Certainly not! I swear by Allah and by the truth!

Al-Hakim ignored the traditions of the vision ofcall to prayereiqama. He never mentioned any of them in hisMustadraklike the two sheikhs; al-Bukhari and Muslim did. This shows that these traditions are wrong.

Al-Hakim took responsibility for following all the true traditions that al-Bukhari and Muslim failed to mention in theirssahihsand since he himself had not mentioned the traditions that speak of the vision ofcall to prayerdo not giveMustadrak, so it became clear that these traditions were not true.

Al-Hakim had said a word that showed that these traditions of vision were vain and just fabricated lies. He said: The two Shaykhs (al-Bukhari and Muslim) ignored the narration of Abdullah bin Zayd on the vision andcall to prayerbecause Abdullah had died before that event (fromcall to prayer)…“(Al-Mustadrak, Band 4, S. 348.)

What confirmed this fact was that thecall to prayer, according to Sunnis, began after the Battle of Uhud. Abu Na'eem mentioned in his bookHilyatul Awliya'Speaking about the biography of Umar bin Abdul Aziz, Abdullah al-Umayri said: “Once the daughter of Abdullah bin Zayd bin Tha'laba came to Umar bin Abdul Aziz and said to him: “I am the daughter of Abdullah bin Zayd . My father took part in the battle of Badr and died in the battle of Uhud.” Umar said to her: “Order what you want!” He gave her gifts (what she asked him for).

If Abdullah bin Zayd had had the visioncall to prayerAs they alleged, their daughter mentioned this to 'Umar bin Abdul Aziz when she mentioned his struggle in Badr and his martyrdom in Uhud.


Allah commanded the believers not to go ahead of Allah and His Messenger and not to raise their voice above the voice of the Prophet (sws), lest their deeds be in vain. Allah said:

"Oh you, who believe! Do not appear before Allah and His Messenger; but fear Allah, for Allah is He who hears and knows all things. Oh you, who believe! Do not raise your voice above the voice of the Prophet and do not speak to him aloud as you speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds come to naught without your knowing” (Quran 49:1-2).

The reason for the revelation of these verses was that some people from Bani Tamim came to the Prophet (sws) and asked him to appoint one of their men as chief over them. Abu Bakr said:(Sahih al-Bukhari, Bd. 3, S. 127)

"O Messenger of Allah, appoint al-Qa'qa' bin Ma'bad as chief over them!" Umar bin al-Khattab immediately said, "O Messenger of Allah, call al-Aqra' bin Habis bani Mujashi'." Abu Bakr said to Umar, "You only want to stand against me!"

They argued before the Prophet (s) and their voices became very loud. So Allah revealed these verses to the Prophet (sws) because Abu Bakr and Umar preceded the Prophet (sws) and hastened to express their opinions beyond their quarrels and shouting before the Prophet (sws).

Allah addressed all believers with these verses to give them a rule on how to behave before the Prophet (sws). These verses forbade any faithful man or woman to express an opinion before the Prophet (sws) and to precede him in anything. Allah's word:
"Oh you whatbelieve! Do not appear before Allah and His Messenger”
means that no Muslim has the right to giveYour opinion on a matter before Allah and His Messenger have decided. As if these men who preceded the Prophet (s) in expressing their opinions considered themselves senior and had the right to decide public affairs; therefore Allah warned the believers against their error and showed them their duty not to transgress them.

Allah's word:
"Oh you, who believe! don't get uptheir voices above the voice of the prophet"
disproved theConcept that these people have the right to decide the affairs of Muslims or have a special position close to Allah and His Messenger as anyone who raises their voice above the voices of others thinks they have a special position or authority over others and this could not have been possible or accepted by anyone in the presence of the Prophet.

One who meditates on the words of Allah:
“... fear Allah: forAllah is the One who hears and knows everything" (Quran 49:1)e:
".. so that your actions do not come to naught while you are unaware"(Quran 49:2),
You will find the truth as it is.

And the one who knows that Allah did not approve of what Abu Bakr and 'Umar did when they gave their opinion before Allah and His Messenger, will be sure that Allah does not allow people to consult on the legislature of His lawsShariah. Inform our people!


call to prayereiqamathey are part of everyday duties and He who established them by law is the same as everyday duties established by law. They are the greatest divine rites with which the Islamic ummah is distinguished from all other nations and religions. She (call to prayereiqama) are examples of high eloquence, grand meanings, and lofty goals.

They openly proclaim the truth; Allah is great, I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah - I praise him and pray to Allah to bless him, come to prayer, come to success, come to the good of deeds . Whoever denounces these facts is not afraid to save Allah and does not submit to a tyrant.

This is a living mission, as one of the scholars said. As if you see that all of life is listening and agreeing, and as if man began to pray from the moment he hears man's first wordscall to prayereiqama. Man comes into contact with the world of the invisible as soon as he hearscall to prayereiqama.

It is a mission where earth meets heaven and man's submission is mixed with the greatness of the Creator. The eternal truth comes to man's mind with every prayer, as if it were new news!

Allah is great, Allah is great, there is no god but Allah, there is no god but to prayer, which Muslims use to prepare for prayer. It is the living call that utters the eternal fact; the fact that is too simple, but too wonderful, because it is the richest fact that need not be repeated through the ages, and at the same time the fact that between the affairs of this world-life and the world-signs there is much more to be repeated Mortality.

A Muslim is in a state of prayer as soon as he hears thiscall to prayerinvites him to prayer. abovecall to prayerA Muslim remembers the greatness of Allah and that is the essence of the essence of prayer.

The silence of the night opens with her (call to prayer), as if it were one of the living phenomena of nature to which ears and souls agree, birds and trees listen, water and air murmur, and the whole world rises to answer the caller's first call...(Da'iy as-Sama' (der Rufer des Himmels) von Professor al-Aqqad, S. 136-142.)

Knapp,call to prayereiqamaare things that people could never invent even if they all came together. We turn to Allah and ask Him not to count us among those who distort the brilliant facts, especially the laws of Allah, HisShariahand its signs.


Sunni traditions about the beginning ofcall to prayereiqamacontradict the true traditions narrated by the infallible Imams of Ahlul Bayt (as). And definitely any tradition that contradicts the true traditions of Ahlul Bayt (as) has no value around us.

In the bookWasa'il ash-Schia ila Ahkam ash-Shari'ahIt is mentioned that Imam Abu Abdullah Ja'far as-Sadiq (sws) said:

“When Gabriel brought the Aazanthus to the Prophet (s) he (Gabriel) spoke theazan and theiqama and then the Prophet (s) ordered Ali to call Bilal. When Bilal came, the Prophet (s) taught him the azan and commanded him to proclaim it (at the times of prayer).

This was mentioned by Muhammad bin Ya'qoob al-Kulayni, as-Sadooq Muhammad bin Ali bin Babwayh al-Qummi and Shia Sheikh Muhammad bin al-Hasan at-Toosi. Suffice it to say that the truthfulness and piety of these scholars can never be questioned.

Sheikh Shahid Muhammad bin Mekki mentioned in his bookath-Thikra(the memory) which Imam as-Sadiq (s) disapproved of some people claiming that the Prophet (s) took itcall to prayerfrom Abdullah bin Zayd al-Ansari. Imam Sadiq (s) disse:

"Gabriel revealed (Azan) to his Prophet and you act as if the Prophet (S) took it from Abdullah bin Zayd!"

I'm sitting in HalabiLeimentioned that Abul Ala' had said: "I once said to Muhammad bin al-Hanafiyya (son of Imam Ali):

“We narrate that Theazanhas began according to a vision that a man of the Ansar had in his sleep.” He became very angry and said: “You have devised a tenet of Islam and a sign of your religion and pretended to do it according to it was given to a vision that a man of the Ansar had in his sleep; a vision that could be true, false, or a nightmare!” I told him, “But this tradition is widespread among the people.” He said: "By Allah, it is untruth itself..."

Sufyan bin al-Layl said:

"I once visited al-Hasan bin 'Ali (as) in Medina. The people discussed azan in front of him at their gathering. Some of them said that Theazan started after a vision of Abdullah bin Zayd. Al-Hasan bin 'Ali (as) said: "The subject of Azanis is greater than that. Gabriel called the Aazanandiqamain from heaven and then revealed it to the Messenger of Allah..."(Mustadrak de Al-Hakim, Band 3, S. 171.)

Haroon bin Sa'd narrated to Shahid Zayd bin Imam Ali bin al-Husayn (as) in his country that Imam 'Ali (as) had this:

"The Messenger of Allah was taught Theazan on the night of his Ascension, when prayer became obligatory."(Mushkil al-Aathar por at-Tahawi, Kanzol Ummal por al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Bd.6 S.277.)

"Come to the best deeds"

This statement was part ofcall to prayerit is atiqamaat the time of the Prophet (s) but the men of authority during the reign of the second Caliph 'Umar tried to make people understand that "the best deed" was jihad in the sake of Allah to do it diligently and they thought that the call to prayer "come to the best deeds" is only a call to the five daily duties and that this contradicts its purpose.

In fact, they were afraid of that statement if she stayed insidecall to prayereiqama. They thought that this would discourage people from jihad because if people knew that prayer is the best of all deeds besides its lightness and ease, they would trust in its reward and stay away from jihad and its dangers.

Those in power at that time devoted themselves to the spread of Islam and the conquest of the East and West. The final conquest of the lands was necessary to stimulate the zeal of the soldiers to throw themselves into dangers for their own sake. Soldiers had to love jihad until they considered it the best deed, for which they would be rewarded on the Day of Resurrection.

So they chose to omit that part of thecall to prayerbecause they preferred utility to the imitation of the holyShariah. The second caliph, Umar, said from above the minbar - as mentioned by al-Qoushaji in his bookShare on Tajreed:

“Three things were practiced in the time of the Messenger of Allah, but I forbid and punish them for them; Temporary marriages, the pleasure of Hajj and "arrive with the best of deeds".(Al-Qoushaji's name was Ala'uddeen Ali bin Muhammad. He was one of the Ash'arite scholars. This was mentioned by Tash Kubri Zada ​​in his book ash-Shaqa'iq an-Nu'maniyya. His biography has been mentioned by other historians. He wrote many books like Sharh at-Tajreed, ar-Risala al-Muhammadiyya, ar-Risala al-Fat~hiyya and other books.)

And so all Muslims after Umar except Ahlul Bayt (as) and his followers omitted this partcall to prayer"Come to the best deeds".

When the martyr of Fakh al-Husayn bin Ali bin al-Hasan bin Ali bin Abu Talib rebelled in Medina during the reign of al-Hadi, the Abbasid caliph, he ordered the caller to proclaim "come to the best deeds" Azan and the caller did.(Mentioned by Abul Faraj al-Isfahani in his book Maqatil at-Talibiyeen and mentioned by all historians who have spoken of Fakh's martyr revolution against tyrants and injustice.)

Al-Halabi mentioned in his book(Band 2, S. 110.)that Ibn Umar and Imam Zaynul Aabideen Ali bin al-Husayn (as) used to say "Achieve the best deeds" after "Achieving success" in Theazan. This has been mentioned in the true and repeated narrations of Ahlul Bayt (as). Consult your traditions and jurisprudence for your views on the matter.


the parts ofcall to prayer, according to the Shias there are eighteen; four times: "Allah is great" and twice each: "I testify that there is no god but Allah", "I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah", "come to prayer", "achieve success", "to best deeds", "Allah is great" and "there is no god but Allah".

the parts ofiqama, according to the Shia there are seventeen; twice for “Allah is great”, “I testify that there is no god but Allah”, “I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah”, “Come to prayer”, “Come to success”, “Come for the best deeds", "The time of prayer has come", "Allah is great" and once "there is no god but Allah".

It is desirable to say "Peace and blessings be upon Muhammad and his descendants" after his name is mentioned in thecall to prayer. It is also desirable to say "I bear witness that Ali is the protector of Allah" after "I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah" incall to prayerE-Noiqama.

He who forbade saying "come to the best deeds" and the like in thecall to prayerand they said they were heresies, that they had made a mistake and gone astray. Any caller (fromcall to prayer) in Islam can recite a desirable word to be attached tocall to prayerlike the verse:
"And say: (All) praise is due to Allah,Who had no son" (Quran 17:111)
or another word like "blessing".and peace be upon you, O Messenger of Allah” or something like that.

This was not prescribed by Allah as part of the lawcall to prayerand at the same time it is not heresy or forbidden in any way because all callers (fromcall to prayer) do not consider it part of thecall to prayerbut they recite it as something desirable according to some common evidence and also the statement "I bear witness that Ali is the Guardian of Allah" is recited according to some common evidence.

A little of people's common language doesn't even spoil thatcall to prayernot oiqamaand it is not forbidden. Then why do they say it is forbidden and heresy? Why do they want to separate Muslims these days?

Change in the Divorce Code

The third divorce, after which a divorced woman cannot return to her husband unless she has married someone else and then divorced, is called the third divorce, which is preceded by two rounds after two divorces. That is, a husband divorces his wife the first time and then gets her back, then divorces her a second time and gets her back, and then divorces her a third time. Now she is forbidden to be his wife unless she marries another man and that man then divorces her.

This is the third divorce after which a woman is forbidden her husband until she marries another man and then the second husband divorces her. Allah said:

“Divorce can be twice, sokeep (her) in good company or let (her) go in goodness... So if he divorces her (for the third time), she will not be nice to him thereafter, until she marries another husband; then if he divorces her, there is no guilt on either of them when they come back to each other (by marriage).” (Quran 2:229-230).

Here is the interpretation of these verses by one of the great scholars of the Arabic language. Az-Zamakhshari says in his Tafseer al-Kashshaf:
Divorce can be twicemeans to be repeated twice and not pronounced once, as He said:
"Then turn your eyes twice" (Qur'an67:4)which means one time at a time.

… It is also said that it means revocable divorce twice – once consecutively – because after the third divorce there is no return … if he (the husband) divorces her (the wife) for the second time, as Allah said(divorce canbe twice)...or if he divorces her for the third time after the twoDivorces, she will not be your legal wife after that unless she marries another man and that man then divorces her...

This is the meaning of the verse that immediately comes to mind, and all interpreters have interpreted this verse. the word of Allah
"So if he divorces her (the thirdtime) it should no longer be lawful for him afterwards"you can notbe applied to a man's statement to his wife: "You are divorced, you are divorced, you are divorced once", unless he has divorced her twice before and stands by her after each time.

But 'Umar saw during his Caliphate that men became accustomed to divorcing their wives in the third divorce with a certain diction(Either repeat this affirmation “You are divorced” three times on one occasion or say “You are divorced for the third time”.)and then, by some sort of punishment and discipline, forced them to do what they set out to do. There are many true traditions that attribute this to 'Umar.

Tawuos mentioned that Abu al-Sahba' had said to Ibn 'Abbas: "(stating the form of divorce three times on one occasion) was it not regarded as divorce during the time of the Prophet (sws) and the time of Abu Bakr? ' Ibn 'Abbas said: 'Yes, it has, but in the reign of 'Umar, did people get used to this kind of divorce and did he (Umar) allow it for them?'(Sahih de Muslim, Bd. 1, S. 575, Sunan de al-Bayhaqi, Bd. 7, S. 336, Sunan de Abu Dawud.)

Muslim mentioned another tradition that Ibn Abbas had said: "During the time of the Prophet (sws), the time of Abu Bakr and the first two years of Umar's reign, the divorce of three repeated declarations (on one occasion) was taken as one Divorce. Then Umar said:

“People threw themselves into an issue that they were aware of. If only we would allow them that!” And so he allowed them.(Sahih of Muslim, Volume 1, Ch. Divorce.)

Al-Hakim mentioned this tradition in hisMustadrakand said it was true according to the terms of the two sheikhs; al-Bukhari and Muslim. Ath-Thahabi also mentions this in his bookTalkhees al-Mustadrakand said that according to al-Bukhari and Muslim it was true. (Al-Mustadrak and Talkhees al-Mustadrak, Vol. 2, p. 169. These two books are printed together and their page numbers are the same.)

Ahmad bin Hanbal mentioned this tradition from Ibn Abbas in hisMusnad(Musnad de Ahmad, Band 1, S. 314.)and many other hadith scholars have mentioned him in their books.(Al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan, Vol. 7, p. 336, al-Qurtubi in his Tafseer, Vol. 3. p. 130.)

Sheikh Rasheed Redha mentioned this tradition in al-Manar magazine(Bd.4 S.210.)from Abu Dawud, an-Nassa'iy, al-Hakim and al-Bayhaqi and then he said:“Among the judgments of the Prophet (s) was the narration that al-Bayhaqi mentioned from Ibn Abbas.(Lei of Ibn Ishaq, Volume 2 p.)

Ibn Abbas disse:

“Rukana once divorced his wife three times. He felt very sorry for her. The Prophet (s) asked him: "How did you divorce her?" He said: "Three times." The Prophet (s) asked him: "On one occasion?" He said yes." The Prophet (s) said: "It is a divorce. You can get her back if you want.

An-Nassa'iy mentioned a narration narrated by Makhrama bin Bukayr from his father that Mahmood bin Labeed said: "Once the Prophet (sws) was informed that a man divorced his wife three times. The Prophet (s) was very angry. He got up and said:"Is the Book of Allah being played with while I am still among you?" A man said: "O Messenger of Allah, shall we kill him?"(Qassim Ameen al-Misri mentioned this tradition in his book Tahreer al-Mar'a (Liberator) p.172, by an-Nassa'iy, al-Qurtubi and az-Zayla'iy, narrated from Ibn Abbas.)

Besides, there are many other true traditions and that is why the ulama of Islam and the credible scholars have admitted this fact.

Among them is Professor Khalid Muhammad Khalid who said in his book (Democracy): “Umar bin al-Khattab ignored the holy religious texts of the Qur'an and the Sunna when benefits demanded it of him. Since the Qur'an prescribes that part of the zakat be paid to those whose hearts were reconciled to Islam through these gifts, the Prophet (sws) and Abu Bakr used to do this, but when 'Umar became the caliph he said: " We pay you nothing by believing in Islam.”

And since the Prophet (sws) and Abu Bakr permitted the sale of female slaves, Umar forbade it.
And since the three divorces that took place on one occasion were considered one divorce according to the Sunnah and consensus, 'Umar proceeded to ignore the Sunnah and destroy the consensus."(Democracy, S.150.)

Doctor ad-Dawaleebi said in his bookUsul al-Fiqh:(S.246.)

“Among the rulings that Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) changed based on the 'change of rulings due to the change of time' was the permission of the third divorce, if it happened once in the time of the Prophet (S), the During the times of Abu Bakr and some times of 'Umar's Caliphate, when the three divorces took place (or were said together) on one occasion, they were regarded as one divorce, as the true tradition of Ibn 'Abbas proves when 'Umar said: 'The people fell themselves into something they were aware of. If only we would allow them that!” And so he allowed them.

DR. ad-Dawaleebi betonte: „Ibn al-Jawziyya sagte:

“But Ameerul Mo'mineen Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) saw that people were beginning to downplay the issue of divorce and that they were doing so with an explanation, and on one occasion he thought that the advantage they had for the execution had to punish such a divorce that when they found out about it, they refrained from divorcing their wives.

'Umar saw that this had an advantage in his own time and thought that what happened during the time of the Prophet (sws), Abu Bakr and some time of his reign was most suitable for the people because they feared Allah and abstained from getting divorced. their wives...that was an example of "the changing of judgments because of the time change."(Glory to Allah! If the mujtahids had the right to change the rulings like this fatwa according to the change of time, even in this short span of time between the reigns of Abu Bakr and 'Umar, then the rulings and texts of the Book and the Sunnah would have the right to disappear. There! How dangerous it will be if the mujtahids follow such a rule that Allah has never revealed!)

The Companions, realizing Umar's good policy of disciplining his citizens in this matter, agreed with him and gave such a fatwa to anyone who asked them about such a matter.(Did they have any proof of that?!)

But Ibn al-Qayyim himself came and gave his opinion of his own time. He wanted to return to the judgments that existed in the time of the Prophet (s) because the times had also changed and the three divorces were consummated with one word and this resulted in marriage being unlawful at the age of the Companions.(The times did not change and the changing of the times did not require a change in the legal judgments determined by the Book and the Sunnah, but Ibn al-Qayyim did what he believed to be the judgment of Allah.)He said: "If the punishment led to corruption more than the corruption of the punished act, then Allah and His Messenger would love the abandonment of that punishment more."(Glory to Allah! What does that have to do with Allah's Sharia?!)

He added: "Ibn Taymiyah said:

"If 'Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) saw that the Muslims had abused the permission of a divorced woman to return to her former husband, he would return to the rulings that were in force at the time of the Prophet (s) ” Ibn Taymiya's precious Council brought the courts in Egypt to the laws that existed at the time of the Prophet (s) due to the “change of times”.(Not! But because of the judgments of the Book and the Sunnah!!)

Tarawih Gebet

Tarawih Gebet (Night prayer during Ramadan.)

This type of prayer was not prescribed by the Prophet (sws) nor was it offered at the time of Abu Bakr, and Allah has never prescribed it by lawshe was hungry(Superrogatory practice (prayer).)Prayer in community, with the exception of the prayer ofIstisqa'(Praying to Allah for rain).

Allah has given the community the right to perform the obligatory prayers like the five daily prayers whichcircumnavigation(circumambulation), the prayers of the two festivals (Eid), the prayers ofAayat(signs; solar eclipse and the like) and the prayer for the dead (for the dead).

The Prophet (s) was used to perform the superfluous prayers on individual nights of Ramadan. He advised the Muslims to perform these prayers and they performed them as they had seen from the Prophet (s). It was so during the reign of Abu Bakr until he died in the thirteenth year of Hijrah and then Umar became the caliph.

That year 'Umar fasted in Ramadan and performed the prayers like the Prophet (sws) and Abu Bakr without any changes. When the next Ramadan of the fourteenth year of Hijra came, 'Umar went to the mosque with some of his companions. He saw people busy offering superrogative prayers; some stood up, some prostrated, some recited the Qur'an and some glorified Allah in a scene he did not like and he saw that he had to reform this "uncomfortable" scene; therefore he decreed the prayer ofTaraweeh(Nafila is a prayer performed on the nights of Ramadan. Sunnis offer it in congregation while we Shias offer it individually as the Prophet (sws) offered and commanded: "Offer prayers as you see me offering sacrifices".)so that they are offered in the early evening and are offered in the church.

He sent his books to different countries and appointed two imams in Medina; one for men and one for women to guide the people in sacrificeTaraweehcongregational prayer. This fact has been mentioned in many true traditions.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim mentioned in theirsahihswhat the Prophet (sws) said:

"Whoever spends the nights of Ramadan faithfully and sincerely and offers his over-indebted services, Allah will forgive him all his past sins." The Prophet (s) died and the rites of Ramadan continued as they were; Nothing has changed even in the time of Abu Bakr and some periods of Umar's reign.(Sahih al-Bukhari, Bd. 1, S. 233, Sahih de Muslim, Bd. 1, S. 283.)

Al-Bukhari mentioned hissahihalso this Abdurrahman bin Abdul Qariy(Abdul Qarriy was Umar's officer over the treasury. He narrated traditions of Umar, Abu Talha, Abu Ayyoob and Abu Hurayra. His son Muhammad, az-Zuhri and Yahya bin Ja'da bin Hubayra transmitted traditions from him. He died in the eightieth year of Hijra.)had said:

“One night in Ramadan, I went to the mosque with Umar. People were scattered here and there and everyone was busy doing something. 'Umar said, "I see that it would be better if I could gather them to an Imam." So he decided and assembled them in Ubayy bin Ka'b. I went with Umar the other night and we saw people performing the prayer behind their Imam. Umar said, "How good that is heresy!"

Allama al-Qastalani disse(On the fourth page of his book Irshad as-Sari fee Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari Volume 4.)upon mentioning this saying of Umar "How good is heresy":

"He (Umar) called it 'heresy' because the Messenger of Allah (sws) did not decide that it should be congregational or offered at the beginning of the evening, nor did Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) decide that..."

The same was mentioned inTohfat al-Bariand other hadith books.

Allama Abul Waleed Muhammad bin Shuhna said in his bookRawdhat al-Manadhirin mentioning the death of Umar among the events of the twenty-third year of the Hijra:

"He was the first to ban the sale of female slaves, the first to make people say four takbir "Allahu akbar-Allah is great" in the prayer for the dead, the first to gather people around an imam to say the performing Taraweeh prayer…”

As-Sayooti mentioned in his bookTareekh al-Khulafa'Umar's initiatives, which he quoted from al-Askari(He was al-Hasan bin Abdullah bin Suhayl bin Sa'eed bin Yahya, surnamed Abu al-Laghawi. He had written a book entitled al-Awa'il (the first or the initiatives).)Saying:

“He (Umar) was the first to be called Ameerul Mo'mineen, the first to decide that the Taraweeh prayer should be in congregation and performed at the beginning of the night in Ramadan, the first to decide the temporary marriage banned, the first to do so had made people say four takbir in the prayers at funerals…”

Muhammad bin Sa'd said in hisPlate:

“He (Umar) was the first to decide that the Taraweeh prayer would be congregational and performed at the beginning of the night in Ramadan and ordered the people to follow him and sent his books to different ones with this instruction Countries. It was in Ramadan of the fourteenth year of Hijra. He appointed two imams to lead prayer in Taraweehin Medina; one for men and one for women…”

said Ibn Abdul Birr in his bookal-Isti'abwhen mentioning Umar's biography: "It was he who illuminated the month of fasting (Ramadan) with the prayer ofTaraweeh.“

These scholars (may Allaah forgive them) saw that Umar had discovered (with hisTaraweeh) wisdom that Allah and His Messenger paid no heed to.

They themselves were the ones who disregarded the wisdom of Allah and His laws and systems. The wisdom behind omitting mandatory Ramadan prayers to be performed in congregation is to allow a believer to be alone with his Lord in his house in the middle of the night, to call on him, to ask him about his to complain pain, to plead, to repent. hoping, reaching back and confessing that there is no refuge but Allah and no savior but Him.

Therefore, Allah has freed the duties of Ramadan from the bondage of assembly in order to allow the believers to be alone in spiritual communion with their merciful Lord. Making these congregation commitments may limit their use and benefits.

Besides that; offer theseNafilasIndividuals would not deprive homes of the blessing and honor of prayer and would encourage the young generation to love prayer and try to imitate their fathers and grandfathers. This would have a great effect on the children and build faith in their minds and hearts.

Abdullah bin Mass'ood once asked the Prophet (sws): What is better; pray in my house or in the mosque?”

The Prophet (s) said:"Don't you see how close my house is to the mosque? I prefer praying in my house to praying in the mosque, apart from the obligatory prayers.”This was mentioned by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Ibn Khuzaymah and Zakiyuddin Abdul Adheem bin Abdul Qawiy al-Munthiri.

Zayd bin Thabit narrated that the Prophet (sws) said:"O people, pray in your houses, except for the obligatory prayers, for it is better to say your prayers at home."It was mentioned by an-Nassa'iy and Ibn Khuzayma.

Anas bin Malik narrated that the Prophet (s) said: Honor your houses with some of your prayers. The Prophet (s) also said: The example of the house in which Allah is mentioned and the house in which Allah is not mentioned is like a living person and a dead person.” It was mentioned by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Jabir bin Abdullah narrated that the Prophet (sws) said: When one of you finishes his prayer in the mosque, let him share his prayer in your house. Allah will bestow good upon your house because of your prayer (in it).' It was mentioned by Muslim, Ibn Khuzayma and others.

But Caliph Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) was a man of organization and rigour. He admired congregational prayers, which had great social benefits, which our ulama had discussed at length. the islamicShariahdid not ignore this side of the obligatory prayers, but at the same time left theNafilasfor the other benefits of the people. Allah said:

“And it is not advisable for the believer and thebelieving woman that when Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter, they should have every choice in their affair" (Quran 33:36).

The Funeral Prayer

The Prophet (s) used to say fiveTakbier(Allahu akbar-Allah is great) in prayer for the dead, but the second Caliph 'Umar admired saying only fourTakbierand he got people to do it too. Many scholars have mentioned this fact, such as as-Sayooti in his bookTareekh al-Khulafa', Ibn Shuhna in his bookRawdhatul Manadhirand other.

Professor Khalid Muhammad Khalid also mentioned this in his bookdemocracywhich we mentioned above.

Ahmad bin Hanbal mentioned in hisMusnad(Bd.4 S.370.)a tradition narrated from Zayd bin Arqam that Abdul A'la had said:

“I once said a prayer for a dead man behind Zayd bin Arqam and he recited five takbir. Abu Eesa Abdurrahman bin Abu Layla came to him (to Zayd), took his hand and said to him: “Have you forgotten?” Zayd said: “No, but I said the prayer behind my beloved Abul Qasim (the Prophet) ( s) and he recited five takbir. I'm not giving this up forever.”

Zayd bin Arqam said the funeral prayer for his colleague Sa'd bin Jubayr, who was famous as Sa'd bin Habta,(Habta was his mother.)and recited fiveTakbieras mentioned by Ibn Hajar in hisinquiryand by Ibn Qutayba in hisMa'arif.

Ahmad bin Hanbal mentioned a narration narrated from Huthayfa that Yahya bin Abdullah al-Jabir said:

“Once I said a funeral prayer in al-Mada'in behind Eesa, the Mawla of Huthayfa, and he recited five takbir and then he turned to us and said, 'I haven't forgotten anything or made a mistake, but I have the takbir when reciting my master Huthayfa bin al-Yaman said a prayer for a dead man and recited five takbir and then he turned to us and said: 'I have not forgotten anything or made a mistake but I have offered the takbir as the Prophet did (s) she recited."(Mentioned by Ahmad in his Musnad, vol. 5, p. 406 and by ath-Thahabi in his Mizan al-I'tidal by Jareer ad-Dhabbi by Yahya al-Jabir.)

Legacy between brothers and sisters

Allah said:

"They're asking for a decision from themLaw. Say: Allah gives you a decision about the person who has neither parents nor children; if a man dies (and) is childless and has a sister, she will have half of what he leaves her and he will be her heir, she has no child; but if there are two (sisters), they will have two-thirds of what he leaves; and if there are brothers, male and female, then the male receives the share of two females; Allah enlightens you so that you do not err; and Allah knows all things”(Quran 4:176).

The verse is clear regarding the duty of inheritance between brothers and sisters when the testator is childless. The word "son" here refers equally to boys and girls.(Arabic-language encyclopedias prove this clearly. Allah says: "Allah commands you concerning your (children) children: The husband shall have a share equal to the share of two wives." (4:11). If an Arab man fathers a girl, he can say: By God, he is not a good son! In Arabic, "son" refers to either a boy or a girl.)

But 'Umar bin al-Khattab interpreted the word "son" mentioned in the verse to mean only the male descendants, and therefore he was equal in inheritance to the daughter of an heir (a dead man) and his full sister; so he gave each of them half of the inheritance. So all four Sunni sects followed him in this concern.

As for the infallible Imams of Ahlul Bayt (as) and his followers, they unanimously agreed that the brothers and sisters and other relatives of an heir would not be entitled to the inheritance if the heir had a child, be it a boy or a girl and whether it was a child or more. His proof was the statement of Allah:

“...and those who are relativesare closest to each other in the order of Allah" (Quran 33:6)

They are very strict about withholding the inheritance from the other relatives if the heir has children, even a daughter. Anyone who would like to know more about the traditions of the Shiites on the subject of inheritance can seek adviceWasa'il ash-Schia ila Ahkam ash-Shari'ahand the other Shia hadith books.

Ibn Abbas was once asked about a man who had died leaving a full-fledged daughter and sister. He said:

"The sister has no right to take anything from the inheritance and the daughter gets half of the inheritance as a compulsory right and the other half is hers because she is the next of kin of the deceased." The questioner said to Ibn Abbas: "But Umar judged differently!” Ibn Abbas said: “Are you more conscious than Allah?”

The questioner said: I could not be sure of this until I asked Ibn Tawoos and mentioned to him what Ibn Abbas had said. Ibn Tawoos told me: "My father told me that he heard Ibn Abbas say: "Allah said:
"..when a man dies (and)he has no son and he has a sister, she will take half of what he leaves..." (Quran 4:176)
but you say: she will have half as much as he doesleave even if you have a child (child).”(Mustadrak by al-Hakim, vol. 4, p. 339 and has been mentioned by many other hadith scholars.)

lack of inheritance

Muslims disagreed about the permissibility of inheritance. The lack of inheritance is that the inheritance becomes less than the actions of the heirs. For example, if the heirs are two sisters and one husband; Each sister should have one third of the inheritance and the husband half.

For the second caliph, Umar, the matter was ambiguous. He did not know which of them Allah had given priority over the other so that he would give preference to him, so he decided to distribute the scarcity among everyone according to the proportion of their actions and this was the maximum result he could achieve could do justice when the subject became ambiguous to him.

But the infallible Imams and Ulema of Ahlul Bayt (as) knew the former and the latter in this matter (and the people of a house are more aware of what is in it).

Imam Abu Ja'far al-Baqir (s) disse:

Ameerul Mo'mineen 'Ali (as) said: “He (Allah) who counted the grains of sand from Aalige knows that the parts (of the inheritance) do not exceed six(People at the time of Imam 'Ali (as) generally assumed that everything consisted of six parts, just as people today assume twenty-four carats. Imam 'Ali (as) wanted to say: You would like to know the solutions of actions when they conflict with each other! You do not exceed six actions. Since you don't understand the way of (distributing) the six actions, you add to the six what you lack. For example, if the heirs are two fathers, two daughters and a husband, the fathers have two shares of the six, the two daughters four (so the six shares are complete) and then add one and a half to the husband and then the acts exceed six and become seven and a half actions, and Allah cannot possibly impose this.)if they (the people) know the ways of its solution.”

Ibn Abbas used to say:

"Whoever wants, I will challenge him before Allah near the Black Rock (in the Kaaba). Allah never mentioned two halves and a third in His Book.” He also said: “Glory to Allah Almighty! Do you think that He who counted the sands of Aalige inherited a half and a half and a third? Those two halves cover the entire heritage, so where will the third be?”

It was said to him: 'O Ibn 'Abbas, then who was the first to diminish (change) actions?' He said: 'When the parts of the inheritance for 'Umar became confused and they came into conflict with one another, he said: 'By Allah, I don't know which of you Allah made priority and which of you made later! I can't help but divide the inheritance evenly among you."

Ibn Abbas said: "By Allah, if you (in the distribution of inheritance) give priority to those whom Allah has given priority to and defer to those whom Allah has delayed, no part of the inheritance will be diminished." He was told: "Which of them has Allah favored and which has He delayed?"

He said: "Any act which Allah has not substituted, except for another obligatory act (for the same heir), is one to which He has given priority, and any act which may be omitted if it conflicts with others, is one that Allah has delayed. Allah has given priority to the husband (of the (dead) heir), who should have half of the inheritance, but if another party conflicts with his, he should have a fourth. The same is said of the wife and mother.

But as for the parts he deferred, it is the daughters' and sisters' parts who shall have half and two-thirds, but if there are other parts that conflict with theirs, they shall have the remainder of the inheritance receive. When what Allah gave priority to and what He did after that (the parties) were gathered, those to whom Allah gave priority should be given first, and if any of the inheritance is left, it should be given to the heirs become which Allah later made.”

This tradition was mentioned by the Second Martyr in his bookar-Rawdha.

Al-Hakim mentions himMustadrak(Bd.4 S.340.)what Ibn Abbas said:

“The first to decrease the shares (inheritance) was Umar. By Allah, if he gives priority (in the distribution of parts of the inheritance) to those whom Allah has given priority and stops those whom Allah stops, no part will be diminished.” He was told: “Which of them has Allah preferred and which of them did He stop?”

He said:

“Any action which Allah has not substituted, except with some other obligatory action (for the same heir), is one that Allah has given priority over the actions of a husband, wife and mother, and every action that is desisted from , when she comes into conflict with others is what Allah has delayed, like the actions of sisters and daughters who should have the rest of the inheritance. When what Allah has prioritized and what He has delayed come together, the previous heirs should get their share first and the rest of the inheritance should be given to the others..."

(Al-Hakim said after mentioning this tradition: "This is a true tradition according to the conditions of the Muslims, but they (al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not mention it in their Sahihs." Ath-Thahabi mentioned this and professes his Accuracy. We have detailed research on this subject in our book The Answers of Musa Jarullah, let me refer you to it.)

So if the husband, mother and daughters are the heirs, the husband and mother must receive their second (replaced) shares; A quarter of the inheritance to the husband, a sixth to the mother and the rest of the inheritance divided equally between the two daughters.

If there are sisters among these heirs, they do not earn anything from the inheritance because the ranks of heirs are three by kinship according to the belief of the infallible Imams of Ahlul Bayt (as) and her followers; The first level includes a father and mother (excluding their fathers and mothers), sons and daughters, the second level includes brothers, sisters, grandfathers and grandmothers, and the second level includes uncles and aunts (father's and mother's brothers and sisters) .

No one of the second rank inherits the heir if there is a first rank heir, and so on.
"'s atOwners of relationships are closer together in the order of Allah" (Qur'an33:6).
This is the belief of the infallibleImams of Ahlul Bayt (as) who made Allah and His Messenger equal to the Book until the Day of Resurrection and this is the belief of all Shias. Two second degree sisters will not inherit the legacy if their mother is alive and Allah Almighty is more aware of it!

Inheritance from grandfather if there are siblings

Al-Bayhaqi explained itThe nameis onShu'abul Eeman(And mentioned by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi in Canzol Ummal, vol. 6 p.15.)that Umar asked the Prophet (sws) about a grandfather's inheritance when there were other brothers and the Prophet (sws) said to him:

“O Umar, why are you asking about this? I think you will die before you understand this matter. The narrator of this tradition, Sa'eed bin al-Musayyab said: "Umar died before he understood this matter."

'Umar was confused on this matter during his reign after making seventy different judgments on the matter. Ubayda as-Salmani says:

"I have written a hundred different judgments determined by Umar on the question of grandfather's inheritance."(Mentioned by Ibn Shayba and al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan and Ibn Sa'd in his Tabaqat and al-Muttaqi al-Hindi in Kanzol Ummal, vol. 6 p.15.)

Umar himself said:

"I have made many judgments on the question of grandfather's inheritance that could have diverted me from the truth."(Kanzol Ummal, vol. 6 S. 15 von al-Bayhaqi em Shu'ab al-Iman.)

Ultimately, Umar referred to Zayd bin Thabit in this matter.

Tariq bin Shihab az-Zuhri said:

"Umar bin al-Khattab decided on the issue of grandfather's inheritance when other brothers were with him, different judgments, and so he gathered the Companions and brought a tablet to write on. They thought that he would make the grandfather (mentioned in the verse) the father(It means being treated like a father when it comes to inheritance.)but at that time a snake appeared and they parted. Then Umar said: "If Allah wanted to fix it, He would have done it."

Then Umar went to Zayd bin Thabit in his house and said to him:

“I came to you about the grandfather issue and I want to make you a father.” Zayd said to him, “I don't agree with you to make him a father.” Umar got very angry and left. Later he sent for Zayd. Zayd wrote his opinion on the matter on a tablet and sent it to 'Umar. Reaching Umar, he made a speech to the people and read to them what Zayd had written on the board and said, "Zayd gave his opinion on the subject of grandfather and I agreed with him."

(Hayat al-Haywan (Animal Life) by ad-Dimyari, chap. (Hayya snake). Whoever wants to see Umar's confusion on this matter can consult the hadith books, the question of inheritance. For example, when we talk about inheritance, we refer to Kanzol Ummal and Mustadrak of al-Hakim.)

common heritage

The case was that a woman had died leaving a husband, a mother, two brothers from the mother but not from the father, and two more brothers from the mother and father in the reign of the second Caliph Umar. This case was twice offered to the caliph. The first time he thought of giving the deceased's husband his share, which was half the inheritance, to give her mother her share, which was one-sixth, to give her two brothers their mother's third; Sixth for each of them and he ruled out his two full brothers.

The second time, Umar wanted to pass the same verdict, but one of the dead woman's full brothers said to him:"Suppose our father is a donkey, then you must join our brothers because of our relationship with our mother." And then he divided the third of the inheritance equally among the four brothers. A man said to Umar: "You didn't do that this year!" Umar said: "In this case we judged then, and so we judge now."

(Mentioned by al-Bayhaqi and Ibn Abu Shayba in their Sunan and by Abdurrazaq in his Jami' as in Kanzol Ummal, vol. 6 p.7, and mentioned by ash-Sharqawi in his Hashiya printed with al-Tahreer by Sheikh Zakariyya al-Ansari. The author of Majma 'al-Anhur Fee, Sharh Multaqa al-Abhur, said: “At first Umar believed in not sharing in his mother's inheritance with all the brothers, and then he changed his mind. The reason for his change of heart was that he had been asked about the case and he had responded with his own opinion on the subject of inheritance, and so one of the full brothers said to him: 'O Ameerul Mo'mineen, if suppose our father is a Donkeys, aren't we from one mother?” Umar thought for a while and then said, “You are right. You are all from one mother. So he distributed the third part of the inheritance among them all.” This event was mentioned in this way by Ahmad Ameen in his book Fajr al-Islam, p. 285.)

This case was called "al-Himaria' because one of the brothers said to Umar:

"Suppose our father is a donkey (himar)..." It can also be called asal-Hajariyyaoral-Yammiyya because it is reported that one of the brothers said to 'Umar: "Suppose our father is a stone (hajar) that thrown into the sea (jam).” It can also be called "al-Umariyya" because 'Umar had two different judgments on him. It has also been referred to as "common heritage".(See Taj al-Aroos by al-Wasiti for more details.)

It was one of the most famous cases among the jurists of the four Sunni sects, although they did not agree on it; Abu Haneefa and his two companions Ahmad bin Hanbal, Zafar and Ibn Abu Layla thought that the two full brothers were not entitled to their mother's inheritance as Umar decided the first time, while Malik and ash-Shafi'iy thought that the both full brothers were entitled to share with their other two brothers the third of their mother's inheritance, as Umar decided the second time.

As for the infallible Imams of Ahlul Bayt (as) and their Shias, they divided the heirs into three ordered classes according to their kinship. Nobody from the next class would inherit if someone from the previous class was available. According to the Shia, the mother belongs to the first class, in contrast to the brothers and sisters, who belong to the second class. This has been detailed in Shia jurisprudence.

According to this principle, the verdict in this case would be as follows; the husband would have half of the inheritance in his own right and the rest would go to the mother of the deceased; part of it as her right and the other part would be hers because she was the next of kin of the dead. None of the brothers and sisters would receive any of the inheritance since their sister's mother was alive.

the share of the heirs

Allah said:

“Men will have a helping of somethingFathers and loved ones leave, and women will have a share in what fathers and loved ones leave behind, be it little or much; a declared share” (Quran 4:7)


"Allah commands you concerning your children: The husband shall have the same share as two wives (Quran 4:11).

atthe verses of the legacy andto inherit is the same as to be general. They are mentioned in Surah an-Nisa' 4. As well as the true traditions and consensus of the ummah on the matter.

Imam Abu Abdullah Ja'far as-Sadiq (s) said: "Islam should testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah with whom the blood (of Muslims) is spared and according to which ones Marriages and inheritances are administered”.

Imam Abu Ja'far Muhammad al-Baqir (s) disse:

“Islam is as it appears in words and deeds. It is a place where groups of people from all Islamic sects are represented. It is that which saves blood, administers marriages and inheritances, and gathers people for prayer, for zakat, for fasting in Ramadan, and for Hajj offerings. With her, all these people came out of unbelief and into faith.”

But Malik bin Anas mentioned in hisI willque Sa'eed bin al-Musayyab Havia hier:

“Umar bin al-Khattab refused to give anything to non-Arabs(The denial of inheritance to non-Arabs could be due to failure to prove to Umar that these people were legitimate heirs, or that the deceased was a Muslim and the heirs were infidels, or failure to prove to Umar that they were among the relatives of the deceased who deserved to inherit it. Allah is aware of this!)their inheritances, with the exception of the one born of Arab parents”. Malik added: “If a pregnant woman comes from the land of the enemy and gives birth to her son in the land of the Arabs, then her son will inherit her when she dies, and she will inherit her son when he dies, according to that A book . Allah's".

(Muwatta' de Malik, Bd. 2 p.m.)

The inheritance of his sister's son's uncle

Sa'eed bin Mansoor mentioned in hisThe name: “Once a man recognized his sister who had been captured in pre-Islamic times. He found her with a child but did not know who the child's father was. He bought them both and set them free (for they were like slaves). The son (when growing up) gained some wealth and then died. The uncle came to Ibn Mas'ood and related the matter to him.

Ibn Mas'ud asked him to go to 'Umar and then come back to tell him what 'Umar was going to say. He went to 'Umar and related his affair to him.

Umar said to him, "He (the nephew) is not your relative and is not included in the inheritance decrees." Umar refused to let the man inherit his nephew. The uncle returned to Ibn Mas'ood and told him what 'Umar had said. Ibn Mas'ud came to 'Umar with the man and said to him: "How did you give this fatwa to this man?"

Umar said: 'I did not find him as one of your blood relatives, nor was he among those deserving of an inheritance; therefore I did not allow him to inherit this young man. What do you think, O Abu Abdullah?” Ibn Mas'ud said: “I see him as a relative (because he is his uncle) and a benefactor (because he freed his nephew from being a slave) and so I see, that he has the right to inherit his nephew. "And so 'Umar reversed his first sentence and allowed the man to inherit his nephew."

This event was mentioned by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi in hisKanzol Ummal, Vol. 6 p.8. This fatwa would have been true if the mother had died before the child.

Iddah of a pregnant woman

Al-Bayhaqi mentioned in his bookShu'ab al-Imanthat once a pregnant woman asked Umar for a judgment and said to him:

"I gave birth to my son after the death of my husband and before the end of myiddah." He asked her to wait until the end of the longer of the two terms of iddah.(Four months and ten days.)

Ubayy bin Ka'b defied 'Umar in the presence of the woman and told him that it was herSheended because she gave birth to his son and he allowed her to live before the end of four months and ten days (DecShe). Umar said nothing to the woman except this statement:"I hear what you hear"(Canzol Ummal, vol. 5 S.166)and he gave up his fatwa. After that, Umar Ubayy bin Ka'b agreed, saying, "If she had given birth to her son and her husband was not yet buried, she could marry."

(Sunan de al-Bayhaqi, Sunan de Ibn Abu Shayba and Kanzol Ummal, vol. 5 S. 166.)

The followers of the four Sunni sects follow this principle to this day.

But we Shia find two contradictory verses in the Holy Qur'an regarding theSheof a woman whose husband dies while she is pregnant; In the first verse Allah said:

“and (as for) pregnant women, theirprescribed time is that they give up their burden" (Quran 65:4)
and in the second he said:
"And (what) those ofyou who die leaving women, they must wait four months and ten days (Quran 2:234).

A pregnant woman whose husband dies can marry after the birth of her child if she obeys the first verse, even if she is not yet past childbirth.Shementioned in the second verse, but if she follows the second verse, she can only get married after the time mentioned in the verse even if she has not yet given birth to her child. Under either assumption, she will resist one of the verses and cannot follow both verses simultaneously unless she waits until the longer of the two periods has elapsed (four months and ten days elapse or until she gives birth to her child). . . . baby) and then she has no choice but to do that. This was narrated from Imam Ali (sws) and Ibn Abbas.(Mentioned by az-Zamakhshari in his Kashshaf in interpreting this verse (and (as to) pregnant women is the prescribed time for them to lay down their burden). This is the opinion of Ahlul Bayt (as) and it is the most cautious opinion.)

Shias followed their Imams by acting on this opinion.


Muslims disagreed on the beginning of the death of Theiddahof,(When a woman's husband dies.)that's four months and ten days. Sunnis believe that the death of Iddahof begins with the death of the husband, whether or not the wife is aware of her husband's death because of separation from her or other reasons.

As for the Shia, they believe that iddahof death begins when a woman learns of her husband's death, even if the death has occurred some time ago. She has no right to marry until the iddah has passed, which is four months and ten days after learning of her husband's death. And then, according to the clear verse, she can marry after passing the iddahand after the sorrow a woman must show after the death of her husband.

Marry a missing man's wife

Ad-Dawaleebi disse:(In his book Usool al-Fiqh, p.241.)

“…Umar also judged according to his own opinion about the wife of a missing man. He ruled that the wife of a missing husband can marry after four years have elapsed since her husband's absence and the marriage has endedSheeven if it weren't proven that her husband had died, lest the woman be left in limbo forever.

"This was the opinion of Malik bin Anas, which differed from the opinion of the Hanaaf and Shafi'ah, who believed that a woman had to wait until she was sure of her husband's death because he was pending certain proof of her husband's dying." would be seen alive death would appear.

“But Umar's opinion was worth considering because it protected a missing husband's wife from certain harm and dangers. He allowed the wife of a missing man to marry, although this decision contradicted the clear text of the lawShariah, on which other jurisdiction depended. This was nothing more than adjusting the judgments to the changing conditions that need to be considered to avoid harm. The Prophet (sws) had said: "No harm (to be inflicted on others) and no mutual harm!" Allah had said:

“...and He has not imposed any on youDifficulties in religion" (Quran22:78).

"NoAs a result, Umar did not annul thisLegal texts, but he activated them for the benefit and according to the different circumstances..."

As for the Shias, in this matter they followed their infallible Imams from Ahlul Bayt (as). They had fixed texts that ruled according to obvious principles. These texts state that if no information can be obtained about a missing husband, if anyone spends with her, his wife must wait until her husband arrives or her death is proven or similar. But if the woman has no one to spend with her, she can take the case to the legal judge to decide.

If she does that, the judge will search for the missing husband in the possible places where the husband can be found for four years, otherwise he will search him everywhere as soon as the wife presents the case to him. Then the judge divorces her or sends her guardian (the one responsible for her) to decide. It is necessary for the guardian to decide first, but if he refuses to divorce her, the judge must divorce her, but after the search period has expired or after the return of the messengers who go to look after the looking for missing husband or something.

After that, the woman spends the time fromSheof death, that is four months and ten days, and then she can marry. If the missing husband returns during theShe, he will have the right to marry her again, but if he returns afterwardsShe, he will have no right to marry her whether he finds her married or not. This is the Shia principle in this matter according to their infallible Imams (S).

sell slaves

All Sunni Muslims of the four sects confirmed that the one who forbade the sale of female slaves was 'Umar, while this was permitted in the time of the Prophet (sws), the reign of Abu Bakr and some time of 'Umar's reign. They considered this one of Umar's virtues, as they reflectedTaraweehprayer and its like.

But scholars who have searched for the truth of this matter have found in the true prophetic narrations that the Prophet (sws) forbade the sale of female slaves and thus they have found that 'Umar followed these narrations and acted in accordance with them . He (Umar) told his son Abdullah that he had heard the Prophet (s) say:

“The slave is neither sold nor given away, nor left as an inheritance, nor regarded as a surety. Her owner has fun with her all her life. If he dies, she will be released.

Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet (sws) said:

"Every slave woman who bears her master's son becomes free after the death of his master."

These two traditions were mentioned by Abu Ja'far Muhammad bin al-Hasan at-Toosi in his bookal-Khilaf, Vol.2. And after the apparent importance of the two traditions, it was clear that 'Umar did not forbid the sale of female slaves based on his own opinion, but he acted on the tradition of his son 'Abdullah and the tradition of Ibn 'Abbas.

But Shaykh at-Toosi was compelled by the traditions of the infallible Imams of Ahlul Bayt (as) in this matter to interpret these two traditions as subjecting them to the teaching of Ahlul Bayt (as). He said: “If a slave woman gives birth to a child by her master while still in his possession, she has the right to be free by having given birth to a child.

It is not permissible to sell a slave who is pregnant and if she gives birth to her child she is still owned by her master and cannot be sold as long as her child is alive, but if her child dies she can still be sold . If her master dies, she is owned by her son and is therefore set free. If her lord does not go away besides her, her son's share (in her) is released and she becomes part of the rest of the heirs.

This was the opinion of 'Ali (as), Ibn az-Zubayr, Ibn Abbas, Abu Sa'eed al-Khidri, Ibn Mas'ood, al-Waleed bin Uqba, Suwayd bin Ghafla, Umar bin Abdul Aziz, Ibn Seereen and Abdul Melik bin Ya'la. Dawood said, "It's still legal to throw it away," but didn't elaborate. Abu Haneefa, his companions, ash-Shafi'iy and Malik said, "She cannot be sold or disposed of in any way, but she must be released when her master dies."

Sheikh at-Tuosi added:

“Our proof of this is the consensus of the sect (the Shia) and its traditions. There is also no disagreement as to whether its owner can sleep with her, but when she is dispossessed it becomes impossible to sleep with her. The rule states that she is a slave and whoever pretends that she was freed after the death of her master must prove it.

The tradition given by Ibn Abbas that the Prophet (sws) said: "Every slave woman who gives birth to a son to her master becomes free after his death" means that when her master dies, she becomes her son's property, therefore she will be released. The narration narrated from Abdullah bin Umar that the Prophet (s) had said: "A slave woman should not be sold, gifted, inherited or considered binding. Her owner has fun with her all her life. If he dies, she will be set free" meaning that she cannot be sold as long as her son is alive. If her master dies, because of what we said in the first tradition, she will be released.”

Need tayammum when there is no water

MustTayammum(Ayammum performs ritual ablutions with earth before offering prayers and other commitments when there is no water.)when there is no water

As proof of this matter, it is enough that Allah said in Sura al-Ma'ida:

"Oh you, who believe! when you get upwash face and hands up to the elbows and dry head and feet up to the ankles before prayer; and if you are obliged to perform a total ablution, then wash (yourself) and when you are sick or in oneTravel, or one of you comes out of the latrine, or you have touched the women and find no water, go cleanearth and wipe your face and hands with it” (Quran 5:6)

EHe said in the sura of an-Nisa':

"Oh you, who believe! do not approach prayer when drunk until you know (well) what it says, nor when you are obligated to take a bath, unless traveling by road, until you have washed. and if you are sick or on a journey or one of you comes from the latrine or has touched the women and cannot find water, go to the Pure Land and then dry your face and hands; verily Allah is Forgiving, Forgiving" (Quran4:43)

There are many true narrations on this subject and one confirms the other and all the Ummah unanimously agreed on it except Umar who was the only one who disagreed with the consensus. The famous traditions handed down by him showed that he believed that a(Irshad as-Sari Fee Share Sahih al-Bukhari por al-Qastalani, Bd.2 S.131.)Those who had no water did not have to pray until they found water.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim mentioned in theirsahihsa tradition narrated by Sa'eed bin Abdurrahman bin Abzi from his father that once a man came to 'Umar and said to him:

"I was in ritual impurity and could not find water to perform ablutions." Umar said to him, "Do not pray!" Ammar bin Yasser was present at the time.

Ammar said, “O Ameerul Mo'mineen, don't you remember a time when you and I were in a brigade (during a war) and we became impure and could not find water (to perform the ablution). You didn't say the prayer, but I rubbed dirt on myself and said the prayer. Then the Prophet (s) said. Umar said: "O Ammar, fear Allah!" Ammar said: "If I don't tell!!"(Ammar said this out of fear of Umar because Umar's statement "Let's see how we should deal with you" was a threat to Ammar.)Umar said, "Let's see how we deal with you!"

It was said that Ibn Mas'ood had taken Umar's opinion on the matter. Al-Bukhari and others mentioned a tradition that Shaqiq bin Salama had said:

“Once I was with Abdullah bin Mas'ood and Abu Musa al-Ash'ari. Abu Musa asked Abdullah bin Mas'ood: "O Abu Abdurrahman, if one becomes unclean and cannot find water, then what will he do?" Abdullah ibn Mas'ood said, "He does not establish prayer until he finds water."

Abu Musa said:

"Then what about the statement of Ammar when the Prophet (sws) said to him: 'Would it be enough for you...'? Ibn Mas'ud said, "Can't you see that Ammar was not satisfied with that?" Abu Musa said, "Let's drop the saying of Ammar! What are you doing with this verse...” he recited to him the Tayammum verse mentioned in al-Ma'ida's sura. Abdullah didn't know what to say.”(Sahih al-Bukhari, Band 1, S. 50.)

I say: Abdullah bin Mas'ood was cautious in his speech to Abu Musa because he feared both 'Umar and Abu Musa. There is no doubt about it. Allah is aware of this!

Two additional rak'as after Asr prayer

Muslim mentioned in hissahih(Bd.1, S.309)a tradition passed down by Urwa bin az-Zubayr from his father that Aa'isha (the Prophet's wife) said:

"The Prophet (sws) never ignored the two rak'ahs (which he used to offer after Asr prayer in my house."

He also mentioned a tradition narrated by Abdurrahman bin al-Aswad from his father that Aa'isha had said: There were two prayers which the Messenger of Allah (sws) never ignored when he was in my house, neither secretly nor open minded ; two rak'as before Fajr prayer and two rak'as after Asr prayer.

He mentioned another tradition that al-Aswad and Masrooq had said: We bear witness that Aa'isha said: Whenever the Messenger of Allah (sws) was in my house, he brought the two rak'ahs to the Asr- prayer."

But 'Umar bin al-Khattab forbade them (those two rak'as) and punished anyone who offered them.

Malik mentioned in hisI will(At the end of the chapter (prohibition to pray before Fajr prayer and after Asr prayer [two rak'as]).)a tradition narrated by Ibn Shihab of as-Sa'ib bin Yazeed, who is said to have seen Umar bin al-Khattab defeat al-Mukandar(Ibn Muhammad bin al-Mukandar al-Qarashi in Taymi al-Madani, como em Sharh al-Muwatta' von az-Zarqani.)because he offered two rak'as after the Asr prayer.

Abdurrazaq mentioned that Zayd bin Khalid said that Caliph once saw Umar offering two rak'as after Asr prayer and beating him for it... Asr prayer) as (leader) to prayer until night not being punished for it.

He also mentioned a tradition like that of Tameem ad-Dariy but in it said “…Umar said: “…but I am afraid that some people might come after you to pray from the afternoon until sunset so that they can offer prayers during currently,(He meant the time of sunset, which the Prophet (sws) forbade performing prayers. The true prophetic traditions on this subject have been mentioned in the hadith books. Malik in his Muwatta' mentioned a tradition from Ibn Umar that the Prophet (sws) had said: "Do not offer prayers at sunrise or sunset." -should not imitate doom. But Caliph Umar became cautious to prevent Muslims from praying after Asr prayer and not just at sunset time. And so he contradicted the Sharia, although he wanted to do good. Would that he had been content with the ban on performing this prayer without hitting the slaves of Allah while they are performing their prayers before their Lord!)whom the Prophet (s) had forbidden to perform prayers.”

Relocation of the Temple of Abraham

The temple of Prophet Abraham (s) is the rock to which pilgrims offer prayers according to the words of Allah:
"Take ashis place of worship the place where Abraham was (to pray)” (Quran 2:125).

Abraham and Ishmael (s) climbed this rock to provide stones and clay when building the house. The rock was attached to the Kaaba, but the Arabs after Prophet Abraham (s) moved it to its place today. When Allah sent Muhammad (s) as a prophet and bestowed upon him the means of power, he restored the rock in the Kaaba as it had been in the days of his fathers Abraham and Ishmael. When Umar became the caliph he supplanted him as he is today. In the time of the Prophet (sws) and in the time of Abu Bakr, the rock was attached to the Kaaba.

(Tabaqat de Ibn Sa'd, Bd. 3, S. 204, Tareekh al-Khulafa' de as-Sayooti, ​​S. 53, Compartilhar Nahjul Balagha de Ibn Abul Hadeed, Bd. 3, S. 113, Kitab al-Haywan de ad-Dimyari, Tareekh Umar von Abul Faraj al-Jawzi S.60.)

In the seventeenth year of the hijra, Umar enlarged the mosque by adding some Companion's houses around it. The Companions refused to sell their houses but 'Umar had their houses demolished and put their prizes in the treasury until later they took their money.(Mentioned by Ibn al-Atheer in Al-Kamil, the events of the 17th year of Hijrah and by other historians.)

weep for the dead

Man's pain at the loss of loved ones and his weeping for them are part of human sentiment, moreover, they are part of the requisites of mercy, unless accompanied by evil words and deeds.

The Prophet (s) said:"Everything that comes out of the heart and eyes is from Allah and Mercy, and everything that comes out of the hands and tongue is from Satan."(A tradition narrated by Ibn Abbas and mentioned by Ahmad in his Musnad, vol. 1, p. 335.)

Muslims have done this everywhere and always without any evidence to forbid it. Necessity demanded that this (mourning or weeping) be permitted.

In fact, the Prophet (sws) himself wept on many occasions and approved of others in their weeping on many occasions and admired (wept) him on other occasions. He may even have invited you to do so.

The Prophet (sws) wept for his uncle Hamza, the lion of Allah and the lion of His Messenger. Ibn Abdul Birr and other historians said: "When the Prophet (sws) saw Hamza dead he wept and when he saw him maimed he wept."(Al-Istee'ab by Ibn Abdul Birr, Biography of Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib.)

Al Waqidy disse:

"The Prophet (s) often wept when Safiyya(She was the Prophet's aunt.)cried and he cried when she cried.” He added: “Fatima started to cry and the Messenger of Allah (sws) also started to cry because she was crying.”(Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Bd. 3S.387.)

Anas ibn Malik said:

“When the Muslim army was with Mu'ta, Zayd took the flag but was wounded. Then Ja'far took the standard and was also wounded. Then Abdullah bin Rawaha took the flag and was also wounded. The eyes of the Prophet shed tears..."(Sahih von al-Bukhari, Bd. 1, S. 148, Bd. 3, S. 39.)

Ibn Abdul Birr said in hisal-Isti'ab:

“The Prophet (sws) wept for Ja'far and Zayd and he said: “They are my brothers, friends and gossips.” son of the Prophet) was dying. The Prophet's eyes began to shed tears. Abdurrahman bin Ouff said to him: "Are you crying while you are the Messenger of Allah?!" The Prophet (s) said: "O Ibn Ouff, it is mercy!" Then he wept again and said: "The eyes shed tears and the heart is sad, but we do not say what displeases our Lord. O Ibrahim, we are saddened by your departure!”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Band 1, S. 154.)

Usama bin Zayed said:

"The daughter of the Prophet (sws) sent for him and said that one of her sons had died. The Prophet (s) went with Sa'd bin Ubada, Ma'ath bin Jabal, Ubayy bin Ka'b and Zayd bin Thabit. The Prophet (s) picked up the boy while his breathing was still loud. The Prophet's eyes began to shed tears. Sa'd said: "O Messenger of Allah, what is this?" The Prophet (s) said: It is mercy that Allah has placed in the hearts of His people. Allah is merciful to the merciful of His people..."

(Sahih of al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 152, Sahih of Muslim, vol. 1, chap. Crying dead hair.)

Abdullah bin Umar disse:

“One day Sa'd bin Ubada fell ill. The Prophet (sws) came to visit him with Abdurrahman bin Ouff, Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas and Abdullah bin Mas'ood. He found him among his relatives. The Prophet (s) asked: "Is he dead?" They said: "No, O Messenger of Allah." The Prophet (s) began to cry. When the people saw the Prophet (sws) crying, they also began to cry. Then the Prophet (s) said. He pointed to the tongue.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Bd. 1, S. 155, Sahih de Muslim, Bd. 1, S. 341.)

said Ibn Abdul Birral-Isti'ab:

"When the Prophet (sws) was informed that Ja'far was martyred, he went to his wife (wife of Ja'far) Asma' bint Umays and comforted her. Then Fatima (sws) (the daughter of the Prophet) came in crying and said: "O uncle!" The Prophet (s) said: "Let the preachers weep for someone like Ja'far!"

(In this tradition, the Prophet (s) sanctioned and commanded weeping for the dead. In fact, the cry of Fatima (sa) in this matter could only be proof enough.)

Historians such as Ibn Jareer, Ibnul Atheer, Ibn Katheer and Ibn Abd Rabbih have mentioned the tradition of Ibn Umar that Ahmad bin Hanbal had mentioned in hisMusnad.(Bd.2 S.40)Ibn Umar narrated:

"When the Prophet (sws) (and his army) returned from the battle of Uhud, the wives of the Ansar began to weep for their dead husbands. The Prophet (s) said: "But Hamza has no one to weep for him!" Then the Prophet (s) went to bed. When he woke up, he heard women crying. He said, "So today they are crying for Hamza."

Ibn Abdul Biramal-Isti'abal-Waqidy quotes his saying:

"The women of the Ansar did not weep for a dead Ansar after this saying of the Prophet (sws) 'But Hamza has no one to weep for him' unless they first wept for Hamza."

Weeping for Hamza in the time of the Prophet (sws), in the time of the Companions and in the time of the successors of the Companions was clear evidence that it is permissible to weep for someone like Hamza, although a long time has passed since then was he died.

The Prophet's (sws) saying "But Hamza has no one to weep for him" and his saying "Let those who weep for someone like Ja'far weep" proved that it was desirable to allow the (good) dead cry.

Despite all this, Umar bin al-Khattab had forbidden weeping over a dead man, no matter how tall he was. In fact, he hit with sticks, threw stones, and threw dirt at anyone who cried for the dead. He did this from the time of the Prophet (sws) and continued to do so until the end of his life.(Sahih al-Bukhari, Bd. 1 S. 255)

Ahmad bin Hanbal in his Musnad mentioned a tradition narrated by Ibn Abbas about the death of Ruqayya, the Prophet's daughter, and the weeping of the women around her, and then said:“…Umar started hitting the women with his whip. The Prophet (s) said to him: "Let them weep!" The Prophet (s) sat at the tomb and Fatima (s) wept next to him. The Prophet (s) began to compassionately wipe Fatima's eyes with his robe.”(Bd.1 S.335)

Ahmad also mentioned in hisMusnad(Bd.2 S.333.)a tradition passed down from Abu Huraira that once a funeral procession passed by the Prophet (s). Among them were some women who were crying. Umar scolded her. The Prophet (s) said:"Let her cry. The heart is sad and the eyes shed tears.”

(One day during his caliphate, Umar heard some women crying in one of the houses. He entered the house and began beating the weeping women until their veils fell from their heads. Then he said to his servant, "Beat the women who are crying...beat them. They have no holiness...” See Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 3, p. 111.)

Aa'isha and 'Umar disagreed on this matter. Umar and his son Abdullah narrated that the Prophet (sws) said:

"A dead man is tortured because his relatives are weeping for him." In another tradition: "...because of the weeping of some of his relatives" in a third idiom "because of the weeping of (people in) the neighborhood" in a fourth "he becomes tortured in his grave whenever they weep for him" into a fifth "he who is wept will be tortured".

All of these sayings are wrong because of reason and tradition.

An-Nawawi said, mentioning these sayings:“All these narrations were narrated by Umar and his son Abdullah.

Aa'isha denied this, accusing her of being forgetful or cheating. She refuted his statements by reciting the word of Allah:
“ bearer will bear the burdenanother” (Quran 6:164)

Ibn Abbas and all the infallible Imams of Ahlul Bayt (as) denied these traditions and confirmed that the narrators were wrong. Aa'isha and Umar were still quarreling over the matter until Aa'isha cried for her father when he died. Because of this, some things happened between them. At-Tabari mentioned in hisTareekh al-Khulafa', Volume 4 when speaking about the events of the thirteenth year of the Hijrah which Sa'eed bin al-Musayyab said:

“When Abu Bakr died, Aa'isha (with her companions) began to weep for him. So Umar went to her house and forbade her and the other women to cry to Abu Bakr. They refused to hold back their tears. 'Umar said to Hisham bin al-Waleed: "Go into the house and bring me the daughter of Ibn Abu Quhafa (Aa'isha, daughter of Abu Bakr)." Aa'isha said to Hisham when he heard 'Umar saying: "I forbid you to enter my house." Umar said to Hisham, "Enter the house! I allowed. Hisham entered and brought Umm Farwa, Abu Bakr's sister, to 'Umar. Umar started hitting Umm Farwa with his staff. When the weeping women heard this, they parted here and there.”

Here we challenge men of understanding to investigate the reason that caused Fatima (sa) to leave the country when she wanted to weep for her father (sws). She went to al-Baqee' (cemetery) with her two sons and her companions. They wept for the Prophet (s) there in the shade of a tree and when that tree was cut down, Imam 'Ali (as) built her a house in al-Baqi' to weep for her father there. It was called "The House of Sorrows".

This house, like the other holy places, was visited by different generations of this Ummah. This house was recently demolished on the orders of King Abdul Aziz bin Sa'ood al-Jundi when he prevailed against Hijaz and destroyed the holy sites in al-Baqee according to his Wahhabi beliefs. It was in the year 1344 A.H. In 1339 we were honored to visit this house (the house of sorrows) when Allah granted us the favor to perform Hajj and visit the Prophet (sws) and the places of his pure family in al-Baqee' .

The Prophet (s) confirms the truthfulness of Hatib

Al-Bukhari mentioned hissahiha narration narrated from Abu Owana that Husayn had said: "Once Abu Abdurrahman and Habban bin Atiyya were arguing. Abu Abdurrahman said to Habban:

"I knew what encouraged your friend - he meant Ali - to shed blood." Habban said: "Woe to you! What was that?" Abu Abdurrahman said, "Something I heard him say." Habban said, "What is that?"

Abu Abdurrahman said: “Ali said: “One day the Prophet (s) sent for us; me, az-Zubayr and Abu Marthad, and we were all horsemen and he said to us: 'You are going to Rawdhat Haj.(It could be Rawdat Khakh, a place between Mecca and Medina.)There lies a woman with a letter from Hatib bin Abu Balta'a to the polytheists. Bring me the letter. We walked on our horses until we found the woman where the Prophet (sws) told us that she was sitting on a camel. Hatib had written a letter to the people of Mecca informing them that the Prophet (sws) was going to attack them.

We asked the woman:

"Where's the book you have?"Is it over theresaid, "I have no books." We made his camel kneel and searched his luggage, but we found no books. My two companions said, "We don't think she has a book." I (Ali) said: "We know well that the Prophet (sws) did not lie." So I swore: "By the one who swore, either you take the book or I will strip you naked".(Imam 'Ali (as) threatened to take off her outer garment which contained the book)

She took the letter out of her clothes. They brought the letter to the Prophet (sws).

Umar said:

“O Messenger of Allah, he (Hatib) betrayed Allah, His Messenger and the believers. let me decapitate you! The Prophet (s) said to Hatib: "O Hatib, what made you do this?" Hatib said: "O Messenger of Allah, I still believe in Allah and His Messenger, but I wanted to polytheists) a favor not to harm my family and property. Each of your companions there has someone from his tribe who will defend his family and his property.” The Prophet (s) said to his companions: “He is right. Don't tell him, save the good stuff.

Umar said again:

“O Messenger of Allah, he has betrayed Allah, His Messenger and the believers. let me decapitate you!(Al-Bukharis Sahih, vol. 4th chap. Forgive recidivists.)

Umar did not have to say this after the Prophet (sws) told them that Hatib was right and after he ordered them not to harm him.

The Book of the Prophet for his Emirs

Malik bin Anas and al-Bazzaz mentioned(According to Hayat al-Haywan von ad-Dimyari, Ch. „camel“ ela-camel.)that the Prophet (s) had sent books to his emirs and requested that if they wished to send him their correspondence, they should make their letters and books with titles and elegant forms. When Umar found out about this, he stood up and said:

"I don't know! Should I say it or should I shut up?" The Prophet (sws) said to him: "O Umar, say!" Umar said to the Prophet (sws): "You have forbidden us to be pessimistic, but how do you become pessimistic now?" The Prophet (sws) said: " I'm not a pessimist, but I chose the best.”

Share the charities

Ahmad bin Hanbal is mentioned in his Musnad(Bd.1, S.20.)that Salman bin Rabi'a heard Umar say:

“One day the Prophet (sws) distributed alms among some people. I said to him: “O Messenger of Allah, there are other people who deserve more than these people; they are the people of Suffa.(Suffa means shed where the neediest of the time lived. It was built next to the Mosque of the Prophet (s).)

The Prophet (sws) said: "You ask me eagerly (and at the same time intend to make me a miser, while I am not."

But the division was made as Allah and His Messenger wanted. Abu Musa said that 'Umar asked the Prophet (sws) about some things that the Prophet (sws) disliked until he got angry. Umar saw the anger on the Prophet's face.(Sahih al-Bukhari, Band 1, S. 19.)

The Prophet (s) commands Umar to hide his faith

Muhyiddeen ibn al-Arabi mentioned that the Prophet (sws) said to 'Umar bin al-Khattab when he became a Muslim:"Keep your beliefs secret."But Umar refused to do so, openly declaring that he was a Muslim.(Tareekh Falsafatul Islam (History of the Philosophy of Islam) by Muhammad Lutfi, p. 301.)

Necessity then demanded that Muslims conceal their beliefs because only with concealment would the mission succeed, but Umar's (valor) caused him to proclaim that he was a Muslim, even though this was contrary to the command of the Prophet (sws)!

Fasting in early Islam

In Ramadan, the beginning of Islam, a fasting Muslim could eat, drink, sleep with his wife and do the other permissible things from sunset until he performed Isha prayer or fell asleep. If he performed Isha prayer or slept, he was forbidden from eating, drinking, sleeping with his wife or doing any other thing not permissible for a fast until the following night.

But one night after Isha prayer, Umar slept with his wife. He regretted what he had done. He went to the Prophet (s) and said: "O Messenger of Allah, I apologize to Allah and to you, my misguided soul..." He told the Prophet (s) what he had done. Then some men got up and confessed that they often did what Umar did after the Isha prayer.

Then Allah revealed to the Prophet (s) this verse:

"It's legalYou must enter your wives on the night of fasting; they are a garment to you, and you are a garment to them; Allah knew that you were unfaithful to yourselves, so He turned to you (mercifully) and took (this burden) from you; Now contact them and seek what Allah has ordained for you,and eat and drink until the white of day differs from the darkness of night at dawn, then break the fast until evening.”(Quran 2:187)

(See Tafseer al-Kashshaf by az-Zamakhshari and Tafseer's other books for the interpretation of this verse. See Asbab an-Nuzool by al-Wahidy, p. 33 for this tradition.)

ÖWormsit clearly showed that they disobeyed Allah more than once, but Allah forgave them and accepted their repentance and allowed them to practice what was inadmissible for them as mercy from Him.

ban wine

Allah revealed three verses about wine; the first was:

“They ask about drugs and gambling. Say: In both there is great sin and gain for men, and their sin is greater than their gain” (Quran 2:219).

According to this verse, some of the Muslims drank wine and others refrained from drinking until a drunken man offered his prayer and then made a mistake while reciting the prayer verses. Then Allah revealed:

Oh you, who believe! Do not goclose to prayer when you are drunk until you know (well) what you are saying" (Quran 4:43)

Afterthe revelation of this versesome Muslims drank wine and others gave it up. Some historians have mentioned that one day 'Umar drank wine and then took a camel's jaw and hit Abdurrahman bin Ouff on the head. Then he sat and wept for the people killed in the Battle of Badr and recited some poems of al-Aswad bin Ya'fur:

"He cannot keep death from me,
Or revive me when my bones are shattered?
Is there someone to tell the charity
that I gave up the month of fasting?
Tell Allah to stop me from drinking
And tell Allah to stop my eating.

The Prophet (s) was informed of this and became very angry. He went out dragging his clothes and hit 'Umar with something he was holding. Umar said: "May Allah save me from his wrath and the wrath of his Messenger!" Then Allah revealed:

“The Shaitan only wants to make a differenceAnimosity and hatred arise in his midst from intoxicants and gambling and to keep him away from the remembrance of Allah and prayer. Then you will give up" (Qur'an5:91).

Umarthis:"We've given up! We give up!"(Fee Al-Mustatraf Kulli Fanin Mustadhraf of Shihabuddeen al-Absheehi Volume 3 Chapter 74. It was also quoted by some scholars from Rabee'ul Abrar by az-Zamakhshari. Al-Fakhr ar-Razi referred to some of these events in his Tafseer al-Kabir, Vol. 3, p. 446 when interpreting the Qur'anic verse: "The shaytan only wants enmity and hatred to arise in his midst through intoxicants and gambling”.

He said: It was narrated that when Allah revealed: 'O you who believe! Do not approach the prayer when you are drunk,' 'Umar said, 'O Allah, proclaim for us a complete statement on wine! And if this verse: "The shaytan only wants to create enmity and hatred in his midst through intoxicants and gambling and keep him away from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. You shall then stop” was revealed, Umar said: “O our Lord, we stop!”)

The Prophet (s) forbids killing al-Abbas and others

The Prophet (s) forbids killing al-Abbas and others

(The Prophet (s) had forbidden killing al-Abbas (the Prophet's uncle). It has been mentioned in many true narrations and the hadith books are full of such narrations. All historians who recorded the history of the Battle of Badr mentioned this and mentioned that the Prophet (sws) forbade killing any of the Hashemite.)

During the Battle of Badr, the Prophet (sws) said to his companions:

“I know that some men of Bani Hashim were forced to go into battle against their will (to fight the Muslims). We don't have to fight them. If you meet any of them (the Hashemite) you must not kill him and if any of you meet Abul Bukhturi bin Hisham bin al-Harith bin Asad he must not kill you.(Al-Bidayeh wen-Nihayeh by Ibn Katheer vol 3 p.284 and other history books like Seera by Ibn Ishaq. The Prophet (s) forbade his Companions to kill Abul Bukhturi because he was one of those who broke the covenant (as-Sahifa) of the blockade against the Hashimite and was among those who did not harm the Prophet (s). inflicted or showed him something he I didn't like. The Prophet (s) intended to keep him alive so that one day Allah could guide him to the right path. In the midst of the battle, al-Mujthir bin Ziyad al-Balawi found Abul Bukhturi and said to him: The Messenger of Allah (sws) has forbidden us to kill him. Abul Bukhturi had a companion with him. He was Junada bin Maleeha de bani Layth who came with him from Makkah. Abul Bukhturi said to al-Mujthir, "Won't my friend also be killed?" Al-Mujthir said: No, by Allah, we will not leave your friend. The Messenger of Allah has commanded us about you alone." Abul Bukhturi said: "Then I will die with him. I do not allow the Quraysh women in Makkah to say that he left his friend alone for his own life's sake.” They fought each other until al-Mujthir killed him. Then al-Mujthir went to the Prophet (sws) and said to him: “By Him, I swear, Who sent you with the truth! I have insisted that he be captured to bring him to you, but he has refused except to fight me. We fought until I killed him.)and if any of you meet al-Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib (the uncle of the Prophet), he must not kill him because he went to war against his will.

The Prophet (s) forbade his Companions to kill any of the Hashemite and then forbade them to kill his uncle al-Abbas, specifically to confirm and emphasize that al-Abbas should not be killed. When al-Abbas was taken as a prisoner, the Prophet (sws) spent that night without sleeping. His companions asked him:"O Messenger of Allah, why can't you sleep?" He said, "I heard my uncle squirming in his ties and I couldn't sleep."They went and freed al-Abbas from his bonds and then the Prophet (sws) was able to sleep.

(It was mentioned by historians recording the events of the Battle of Badr.)

Yahya bin Katheer said:

"On the day (of the battle) of Badr, the Muslims captured seventy men of the polytheists, including al-Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet. Umar bin al-Khattab was responsible for tying him up. Al-Abbas said: "O 'Umar, by Allah, what makes you tighten my shackles is because I hit you because of the Messenger of Allah."

The Prophet (s) heard al-Abbas moaning and could not sleep. The Companions asked: "O Messenger of Allah, what prevents you from sleeping?" He said: "How can I sleep while hearing my uncle moaning?" Then the Ansar released him..."(Canzol Ummal, vol. 5 p.272, also mentioned by Ibn Asakir.)

All the Companions of the Prophet of Ansar, the Muhajireen and others well knew what high position Abul Fadhl al-Abbas had in the vicinity of the Prophet (s). When the Prophet (sws) heard the word of Abu Huthayfa bin Utba bin Rabee'a bin Abd Shams who fought with the Prophet (sws) in Badr when he said:

"Do we kill our fathers and brothers and release al-Abbas? By Allah, if I find him, I will strike him with the sword.” He became very angry at this, so he said to 'Umar, provoking his zeal, “O Abu Hafs, it is right that the Prophet's uncle's face was struck will with the sword?" Umar said: "By Allah, it was the first day that the Prophet (s) called me Abu Hafs."(Al-Bidayeh wen-Nihayeh, Band 3, S. 285.)

The war is over. The Prophet (sws) won the victory and his army returned with honor. Seventy of the tyrants were killed and another seventy of them were captured. Prisoners were brought in by dragging their ties. Abu Hafs (Umar) began sternly urging them to be killed. He said:

“O Messenger of Allah, they (considered you a liar) did not believe in you, exiled you and fought against you. Would you allow me to kill so-and-so (one of your relatives) and would you allow Ali to kill your brother Aqeel and would you allow Hamza to kill your brother al-Abbas?”

Glory to Allah! Al-Abbas and Aqeel were not among those who thought the Prophet (sws) a liar, nor among those who banished him, nor among those who harmed him! They were with him in the Shi'b during the long period of blockade against the Hashimites who were tormented with him. They were drawn into battle reluctantly as the Prophet (sws) himself testified and the Prophet (sws) forbade his companions to kill them in the heat of war, so how would they be killed while captive?

Just as the withering of al-Abbas troubled the Prophet (sws) and prevented him from sleeping, so how would he become if his uncle was killed without cause? Al-Abbas had previously been a Muslim, but he had hidden his faith behind a wisdom of happiness to Allah and His Messenger and goodness to him and the Ummah.

(Ahmad Zayni Dahlan, the Mufti of the Shafi'a, when he mentioned al-Abbas during the Battle of Badr, in his book as-Seera an-Nabawiyya, Vol. 1, p. 504, said: “Al-Abbas, according to what the Scholars and historians had said he became a Muslim a long time ago, but he hid his faith. He was delighted when the Muslims were victorious. The Prophet (s) always told him his secrets when he was in Mecca and he always accompanied the Prophet (s) when he went to invite the different tribes to believe in Islam. Al-Abbas always encouraged the tribes to support the Prophet (sws). He had attended the Al-Aqaba tribute that took place between the Prophet (sws) and the Ansar. All of this showed that he was a Muslim. The Prophet (s) commanded him to stay in Makkah to write down the secrets and news of the Quraysh for him. When Quraysh wanted to go to war in Badr and called the people to fight (against the Muslims), he could not help but go with them; that is why the Prophet (sws) had said on the Day of Badr: "Whoever finds al-Abbas should not kill him because he went to war involuntarily."

This does not contradict what the Prophet said when he asked for salvation: "You were apparently against us," for the fact that he was apparently against them did not contradict the fact that he was inwardly with them. The Prophet (s) treated him according to his apparent condition to please the hearts of his companions where he had treated their parents, children and tribes in the same way. Al-Abbas had property and money close to the people of Quraysh and feared that his property would be lost among them if he announced that he was Muslim. He had hidden his faith as instructed by the Prophet (sws). The Prophet (sws) himself did not tell his companions about his uncle's faith because he was kind to his uncle and feared that his uncle's money would be lost. The Prophet (s) had a different aim by hiding his uncle's faith. He wanted him to become a spy to bring him the news from the Quraysh. But then, when Islam defeated the Quraysh on the day of the conquest of Mecca, al-Abbas openly professed his faith. He had not professed his faith until the conquest of Mecca.

Al-Abbas often asked the Prophet (s) for permission to immigrate to Medina to stay with the Prophet (s), but the Prophet (s) wrote to him: “Your stay in Mecca is better for you.” In another tradition the Prophet (sws) wrote to him: “O uncle, stay where you are. Allah will complete Hijra (emigration) with you just as he has completed the prophetic mission.” And it was so because al-Abbas was the last emigrant, for he met the Prophet (sws) in al-Abwa', where he did not know that the Prophet (sws) went to conquer Makkah and then returned with him...” Al-Halabi in his Seera he had a clearer discourse on the earlier beliefs of al-Abbas and his wife Umm al -Fadhl, who immigrated to the Prophet (sws) very early. Consult this and the statements of other scholars on the subject.)

Taking ransom from Badr prisoners

When Allah granted victory to His slave and Messenger on the Day of Discernment, the day the two parties met; the captives were brought to the Prophet (s). It seemed then that he would keep them alive so that Allah could later lead them to His religion; and it was by the grace of Allah!

But the Prophet (s) decided after forgiving them to ask ransom from them to weaken them so that they could not face him again and so that with this ransom he would be stronger than them. This was best for both sides and was undoubtedly loyalty to Allah and His people;

"He doesn't speak out of desire either. That's itnothing but the revealed revelation" (Quran 53:3-4).

Although theThe Prophet (sws) was merciful by nature and wherever he found a way he would not fail to show his mercy.

Umar thought that all the captives should be killed as a reward for believing the Prophet (sws) to be a liar, hurting him, exiling him and fighting against him. Umar was very determined to finish them off and that they should be killed by their Muslim relatives.
But the Prophet (s) illustrated the Word of Allah:

"EUfollow nothing but what is revealed to me; At least I fear that if I disobey my LordPunishment of a mighty day" (Quran 10:15).

The Prophet (s) forgave them and released them after accepting the ransom. After that, those who did not know his infallibility and wisdom became as if
"cannot ariseexcept when one whom Satan has cast down by (his) touch stands up. Therefore they say" (Qur'an2:275)
that theThe Prophet (s) acted according to his own ijtihad (opinion) by detaining them (the captives) and receiving ransom from them.(Ad-Dahlani in his as-Seera an-Nabawiyya, Bd. 1 p.)while the right thing for him was to kill her and get rid of her evil. They relied on false and fabricated traditions that neither reason nor custom would accept.

Among these false narrations was this: After the Prophet (s) took the ransom from the prisoners of Quraysh (and freed them), 'Umar went to him and found him and Abu Bakr weeping. 'Umar said to them: 'Why are you crying?' The Prophet (s) said: 'We are in great distress because we contradicted (Umar) Ibn al-Khattab. When the torment comes, no one will be safe from it except Ibn al-Khattab.”

(As-Seera an-Nabawiyya by ad-Dahlani, vol. 1, p. 512, other narrations of roughly the same meaning mentioned in as-Seera by al-Halabi and al-Bidayeh wen-Nihayeh quoted by Ahmad bin Hanbal , Muslim, Abu Dawud and at-Tarmithi narrated from Umar bin al-Khattab.)

(They said) then Allah revealed:

"Not suitable forProphet that he will lead captives unless he has fought and conquered in the land; you covet the fragile goods of this world while Allah covets (for you) the hereafter; and Allah is Mighty, Wise. Had it not already been decreed by Allah, surely a great punishment would have come upon you for what you have done” (Quran 8:67-68).

"And they did not ascribe to Allah the attributes that are due to Him" ​​(Qur'an6:91)when they have strayed too far and ascribed ijtihadthe Prophet (s) while Allah said:

"It's nothing butRevelation that is revealed” (Quran 53:4).

You were very ignorant whenthey thought that the Prophet (sws) was mistaken and they went astray to the utmost when they preferred the speech of anyone other than the Prophet (sws). They were confused by this verse and blinded to its intentions. They said that it was revealed to censure the Prophet (sws) and his companions when, as the fool pretended, they preferred the pleasures of this life to the hereafter, letting the captives live and exacting ransom from them before they " ..had fought and wonon earth” (Quran 8:67).They pretended that no one was innocent of this sinexcept Umar and when the great chastisement came no one would be safe from him but Umar!

He told lies pretending that the Prophet (sws) kept the captives and rescued them from him"..he hadfought and conquered on earth.

You are the Prophet (s).das nach dem Kampf und dem Töten der Helden und Tyrannen der Quraysh wie Abu Jahl bin Hisham, Utba, Shayba bin Abu Rabee'a, al-Waleed bin Utba, al-Aas bin Sa'eed, al-Aswad bin Abdul Asad al- Makhzoomi, Umayya ibn Khalaf, Zam'a ibn al-Asad, Aqeel ibn al-Aswad, Nabeeh, Munabbih, Abul Bukhturi, Handhala ibn Abu Sufyan, Tu'ayma ibn Adiy ibn Nawfal, Nawfal ibn Khuwaylid, al-Harith ibn Zam' a , an-Nadhr bin al-Harith bin Abd ad-Dar, Umayr bin Othman at-Tameemi, Othman und Malik, die Brüder von Talha, Mas'ood bin Umayya bin al-Mugheera, Qayss bin al-Faqih bin al-Mugheera , Huthayfa ibn Abu Huthayfa ibn al-Mugheera, Abu Qayss ibn al-Waleed ibn al-Mugheera, Amr ibn Makhzoom, Abul Munthir ibn Abu Rifa'a, Hajib ibn as-Sa'ib ibn Uwaymir, Ouss ibn al-Mugheera ibn Louthan , Zayd ibn Malees, Aasim ibn Abu Ouff, Sa'eed ibn Wahab, Mo'awiya ibn Abdul Qays, Abdullah ibn Jameel ibn Zuhayr ibn al-Harith ibn Asad, as-Sa'ib ibn Malik, Abul Hakam ibn al-Ahnass, Hisham bin Umayya bin al-Mugheera... is siebzig Jahre alt descrença und die Häuptlinge des Polytheismus.

After all, how could the Prophet (sws) have saved before he fought? If only they had sense! How dare they accuse the Prophet (sws) after their victories, O Muslims?! Allah forbid! The Prophet (s) is far above anything they raved about!

The fact is that the verse was revealed to rebuke those who wanted to keep the caravans and capture their guards, as Allah had said about the event:

"And if Allahpromised you one of the two parts that would be yours and you loved that the one who was not armed should be yours and Allah wanted to reveal the truth of what is true through His words and cut off the root of the disbelievers ' (Quran 8:7).

The Prophet (s) questioned his companions and said to them: “The people (the polytheists) went away on their camels. Do you love camels more or do you fight?” They said: “We love camels more than facing the enemy.” One of them said to the Prophet (s) when he saw that he insisted on fighting: "You should have told us about the fight so we could prepare for it. We came to get the camels and not to fight.” The Prophet (sws) was very angry.(Al Halabi Law, Ad Dahlani Law and other history books.)

Then Allah revealed:

“How your Lord brought you outout of his house with the truth, though certainly a group of believers were reluctant. Did they argue with you about the truth after it became clear (and theyextinguished), as if they were being put to death while they saw (it)"(Koran 8:5-6).

So Allah wanted to convince them by justifying the situation of the Prophet (sws) in his insistence on fighting and his indifference towards the camels and their attendants when He said:

"Thisunworthy of a prophet(among the prophets whocome before your Prophet Muhammad)"Let him takecaptives, unless he fought and triumphed on earth" (Quran8:67);then your prophet would have no captives"unless he has fought and conquered on earth"like the other one beforeprophets before him. But you wanted by taking the camels and capturing their guards to get the pleasures of this life, but Allah wanted the other by ending His enemies and Allah is (mighty, wise). Strength and wisdom were then required to break the enemy's might and quench their flames.

Then Allah said, correcting them:
was notby a decree of Allah who had already gone out"to prevent them from taking and catching the camelstheir guards that they had captured the people and taken their camels. If they had done "...would have determinedA great punishment has come upon you for what you have done" (Qur'an8:68)before you fight on earth!

This is the meaning of the verse and cannot be interpreted otherwise than this meaning. I don't know if anyone preceded me in this interpretation when I mentioned this verse and explained it in my bookal-Fusul al-Muhimma(the important chapters).(Kap.8.)

Prisoners of Hunayn

When Allah caused His Messenger to defeat the Hawazin tribe in Hunayn and bestowed upon them this great victory, the Prophet's (s) caller proclaimed: "No captives should be killed!"

'Umar bin al-Khattab passed by a bound prisoner named Ibn al-Akwa', who had previously been sent to Mecca by the tribe of Huthayl as a spy for the Prophet (sws) to bring the news of the Prophet (sws) and his Companions . When Umar saw him he said:"This is the enemy of Allah. He spied on us. He's a prisoner here. Kill him!” One of the Ansar beheaded him. When the Prophet (sws) was informed of this, he rebuked them for it and said: "Didn't I order you not to kill prisoners?"(Irshad de Sheikh al-Mufed, cap. To install the Battle of Hunayn.)

After killing this one, they killed Jameel bin Ma'mar bin Zuhayr. The Prophet (s) sent for the Ansar because he was very angry. He said to them:

"Why did you kill him while my messenger came to you and ordered you not to kill prisoners?"

They apologized and said Umar ordered them to kill the prisoner. The Prophet (sws) got angry and left them (Umar) until Umayr bin Wahab intervened with him (with Umar) and then he forgave them.(ibid.)

Among those killed at Hunayn was a woman from Hawazin. She was killed by Khalid bin al-Waleed. The Prophet (sws) was very angry when he passed by her body which was crowded around. The Prophet (s) said to one of his companions:"Follow Khalid and tell him that the Prophet (sws) commands you not to kill women, children or servants."It was narrated from Ibn Ishaq.

Ahmad bin Hanbal disse:

"Abu Aamir bin Abdul Melik narrated from al-Mugheera bin Abdurrahman from Abu az-Zinad from al-Muraqqi' bin Sayfi that his grandfather Rabah bin Rabee' had told him that the Prophet (s) once returned from one of his battles , where Khalid bin al-Waleed was the leader of the army. Rabah and the companions of the Prophet (s) passed by a dead woman who had been killed in front of the army. They surprisingly stopped looking at her.

When the Prophet (sws) arrived, they scattered. The Prophet (s) stopped and looked at them and said:

"She wouldn't have fought!" He said to one of his companions, "Follow Khalid and tell him not to kill any woman or any official."(Al-Bidayeh wen-Nihayeh by Ibn Katheer, cap. A Battle of Hunayn)

It was also mentioned by Ibn Dawud, an-Nassa'iy and Ibn Maja from al-Muraqqi' bin Sayfi.

The Refugees of Jihad

Allah forbade escaping Jihad through this verse:

"Oh you, who believe! If you find those who don't believe in going to war, don't turn your back on them. And whoever turns his back on them that day, unless he turns away to fight or retires into a group, then indeed he deserves the wrath of Allah and his dwelling is Hell; and there will be a bad fate" (Quran 8:15-16)

It is a clear and absolute text in a clear verse of the Holy Quran. But some of the companions interpreted it according to their own opinion, preferring the benefits to the obedience to the sacred texts. In fact, they have violated this plaintext on many occasions.

One such occasion was on the day of Uhud. Ibn Qam'a attacked and killed Mus'ab bin Umayr (may Allaah be pleased with him) because he thought he was the Prophet (sws). He returned to the Quraysh and told them that he had killed Muhammad. The polytheists began to share good news with one another. They said: "Muhammad was killed! Mohammed was killed! Ibn Qam'a killed him. The Muslims were afraid and fled without knowing what to do as Allah said to express their condition:

"When you rushed away and didn't do itWait for someone and the Messenger called you from behind, so He gave you another sorrow instead of (your) sorrow” (Quran 3:153).

The Prophet (s) called them:

“O slaves of Allah, come to me! O servants of Allah, come to me! I am the Messenger of Allah. Whoever attacks the enemy will be in paradise!” He called them while he was behind, but they turned to no one (as they fled).

Ibn Jareer and Ibnul Atheer mentioned in their Tareekh: "The defeat of the fleeing group of Muslims, including Othman bin Affan and others, brought them to al-A'was. They stayed there for three days and then returned to the Prophet (s) who, upon seeing them, said to them: "You have gone where you wished!"(These details have been mentioned by all historians who have spoken about the Battle of Uhud.)

Ibn Jareer and Ibnul Atheer also mentioned that Anas bin an-Nadhr, the uncle of Anas bin Malik, met Umar, Talha and some of the Muhajireen, who laid down their arms and gave up fighting. He asked them: "Why did you give up the fight?" They said: "The Prophet (s) was killed". He said to them, "And what are you going to do with your life after him? Die for what the Prophet (sws) died for!” So ​​he attacked the polytheists and fought them until he was killed. Seventy stab wounds and blows were found on his body and no one but his sister can have known him.

They mentioned that Anas bin an-Nadhr had heard some of the Muslims, including Umar and Talha, saying when they heard that the Prophet (sws) had been killed:

“Abdullah bin Abu Salool will come and protect us from Abu Sufyan before they kill us!” Anas said to them: “O people, if Muhammad was killed, the Lord was not killed by Muhammad. Fight for what Muhammad fought for! O Allah, I apologize to you for what these people are saying and I absolve what they are doing!” So ​​he fought to the point of martyrdom.(This story has been mentioned by historians who have detailed the events of the Battle of Uhud.)blessings of Allah be upon him.

And another of those occasions was:

“…in the days of Hunayn, when their great numbers made you vain, but they availed you nothing, and the land grew narrow for you in spite of your space, so you turned and fell back. Then Allah sent His peace upon His Messenger and upon the believers" (Qur'an9:25-26)
werkept for the Prophet (s) when his Companionsran away; the companions among whom was Umar as al-Bukhari said in his Sahih(Bd.3 S.46. Al-Bidayeh wen-Nihayeh von Ibn Katheer, Band 4, S. 329 von al-Bukhari, Muslim and Outros.)mentioning a tradition that Abu Qatada al-Ansari had said: “…on the day of Hunain the Muslims fled and I fled with them. I saw Umar among the refugees. I said to him, "What's the matter with the people?" He said: "It is up to Allah..."

And one more opportunity; When the Prophet (sws) marched to conquer Khaybar, he sent Abu Bakr at the head of the army. He was defeated and returned.(Mustadrak de al-Hakim, Bd. 3, S. 37, Talkhees al-Mustadrak von ath-Thahabi.)

Imam 'Ali (as) said:

“The Prophet (sws) marched to conquer Khaybar. He sent Umar in front of the Companions (the army). He and his companions were defeated and rejected; one coward the other..."(Mustadrak von al-Hakim, Talkhees al-Mustadrak von ath-Thahabi.)

Al-Hakim mentions himMustadrak(Bd.3, S.38.)que Jabir bin Abdullah havia dito:

"The Messenger of Allah said: "Tomorrow I will send a man who loves Allah and His Messenger and they love him. He will not turn his back (on the enemy). Allah will grant you victory.” Men longed for it. Ali had sore eyes that day. The Prophet (s) asked him to go with the army. Ali said: "O Messenger of Allah, I cannot see anything." The Prophet (sws) spat in Ali's eyes and gave him the banner.

Ali asked: "O Messenger of Allah, what should I fight against them for?" The Prophet (sws) said: "To bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. If they do, they will be spared their blood and money and their reward will be with Allah.” He fought them (the people of Khaybar) and defeated them.”

Al-Hakim said after mentioning this tradition:

"Al-Bukhari and Muslim agreed with the tradition (the flag) but did not mention it in that way."

So it was said by ath-Thahabi in hisTalkheesafter mentioning the tradition.

Iyass bin Salama narrated that his father said:

“We fought with the Prophet (s) in Khaybar when he spat in Ali's eyes and they recovered, and then the Prophet (s) gave him the standard. Marhab came out to Ali and recited:

Khaybar says he's so marhab
Experienced hero with edged weapons
When wars burst into flames.”

Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him) came to him and recited:

"It is I whom my mother called me Haydara,
like a lion of the forest with an evil eye.
I will kill (many of) you with the sword.”

Ali hit Marhab and split his head and then victory came.”(Mustadrak of al-Hakim who said that it is a true tradition according to the terms of al-Bukhari and Muslim. So it was said by ath-Thahabi in his Talkhees.)

And another occasion during the battle of as-Silsila in the valley of ar-Raml (Sand); it was like the battle of Khaybar. First the Prophet (s) sent Abu Bakr and then he returned defeated with his army. Then the Prophet (s) sent Umar, who also came back defeated. After that, the Prophet (s) sent Imam 'Ali (as) who returned with victory, boots and captives.(See al-Irshad by Sheikh al-Mufeed for more details.)

The battle of as-Silsila differs from the battle of Thaat as-Salasil which took place in the seventh year of the hijra led by Amr bin al-Aas. According to all historians, Abu Bakr, Umar and Abu Ubayda belonged to the army on that day.

There were some problems between 'Umar and 'Amr bin al-Aas as al-Hakim mentioned in hisMustadrak.(Vol. 3, S.43.)Abdullah bin Burayda narrated that his father said:

"The Prophet (s) sent 'Amr bin al-Aas to lead the army in the battle of Thaat al-Salasil, where Abu Bakr and 'Umar were like soldiers. When they reached the battlefield, Amr ordered his army not to light any fires. Umar bin al-Khattab got angry and tried to attack Amr but Abu Bakr forbade him from doing so and told him that the Prophet (sws) appointed Amr to be the leader because he knew he was an expert in war matters and so on Umar stayed quiet."

Al-Hakim after mentioning this tradition said that it was true and ath-Thahabi said the same after mentioning the tradition in hisTalkhees.


The Prophet (s) had wise ways of proclaiming the virtues of Imam 'Ali (as) and preferring him to the other Companions. Researchers knew this only too well.

One of these ways was the fact that the Prophet (s) never appointed anyone to be the leader of Imam 'Ali (as), neither in war nor in peace, while the other Companions were under the leadership of others.(Once al-Hasan al-Basri was asked about Imam 'Ali (as) and he said: What shall I say about the one who has attained the four aspects; being entrusted with the sura of Bara'a, what the Prophet (sws) said about him in the battle of Tabook... Prophet (sws): ...the two hard things; the book of Allah and my family and that no emir was ever appointed over him while emirs commanded others (companions) besides him...” See Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 1 p.369)

The Prophet (s) made Amr bin al-Aas Emir of Abu Bakr and 'Umar at the Battle of Thaat as-Salasil. When the Prophet (sws) left for a better world, Osama bin Zayd, although very young, was the Emir over the heads of the Muhajireen and the Ansar like Abu Bakr, Umar, Abu Ubayda and their ilk.

When the Prophet (sws) appointed Imam 'Ali (as) to be the leader of an army, he added famous figures to his army, but when he appointed others besides himself, he excluded him from these armies and kept him with himself.(As he did in the battle of Khaybar when he appointed Abu Bakr and then Umar as leaders but he was not under their leadership but when he appointed Imam 'Ali (as) as leader they were both under his leadership. Praise be to Allah for all of this!)

When the Prophet (sws) sent two brigades; one under the leadership of Imam 'Ali (as) and the other under the leadership of another, he ordered that when the two brigades came together both would be under the leadership of Imam 'Ali (as) and when they separated again , each one would lead his brigade.(Ahmad bin Hanbal mentioned in his Musnad, vol. 5, p. 356 that Burayda had said: “The Prophet (sws) sent two armies to Yemen; One of them was led by Ali bin Abu Talib and the other was led by Khalid bin al-Waleed. He told them, "If you meet, Ali will be the leader of the two armies and if you split, each of you will lead your army." We met Zubayda's tribe and fought each other. Muslims defeated polytheists. We kill the warriors and capture the women. Ali chose a woman from among the prisoners. Khalid sent a letter with me to the Prophet (s) telling him about it. When I reached the Prophet (s) I gave him the book. It was read to him. The mark of anger appeared on the face of the Prophet (sws). I said: 'O Messenger of Allah, you sent me with a man and commanded me to obey him and I did what I was commanded.' The Prophet (s) said: 'Do not get into any trouble with Ali a! He is mine and I am his and he is your guardian after me.” This tradition has been mentioned by other hadith scholars. See our book al-Muraja'at, No. 36.)

The Prophet (s) had more than once sent others in armies besides Imam Ali (as), but they returned without success and so the Prophet (s) sent Imam Ali (as) to gain great victories(As in the Battle of Khaybar and the Battle of Thaat as-Salasil mentioned above.)and in this way the virtue of Imam 'Ali (as) appeared better than if the Prophet (s) had sent him from the beginning.

The Prophet (s) may have sent someone other than Imam 'Ali (as) on a task for which necks were stretched out, and then Allah revealed to the Prophet (s) that: "No one should perform your tasks except you or a Man of you” means Imam 'Ali (as) as it was in issuing the Surah of Bara'a and breaking the covenants of the polytheists on the day of the great Hajj.(We have written good research on this subject in our book Abu Hurayra. See pp.157-188, Tradition #18.)

Der Prophet (s) befiehlt seinen Gefährten, Abu Sufyan in Uhud nicht zu antworten

On the day of Uhud, the Prophet (sws) and his companions stopped at the edge of the valley and left the mountain behind. The polytheists were three thousand seven hundred armored warriors and two hundred horsemen. There were fifteen women with them. The Muslims were two hundred armored fighters and two horsemen.

The two armies prepared for battle. The Prophet (sws) (and his Companions) turned his face to Medina and left the mountain of Uhud behind. He placed behind him the archers, who numbered fifty men, and appointed Abdullah bin Jubayr as his emir, saying to him:

"Keep the knights away from us for the arrows. Let's not attack them from behind. Hold your seats win or lose 'cause we won't be attacked except by this pass (shi'b); the gorge of Uhud."

Talha bin Othman, the standard-bearer of the polytheists, came out and cried:

“O Companions of Muhammad, you claim that Allah will hasten us to Hell by your swords and He will hasten you to Paradise by our swords. May each one of you who wants to put your sword to hell on me and my sword to take you to heaven, step forward!”

said Ibnul Atheeral-Kamil:

“…Ali bin Abu Talib came to him and hit him and his leg was cut off. He fell to the ground and his privates were exposed. He begged Ali and Ali left him alone. He boiled in his blood until he died. The Prophet (s) said: "Allahu akbar - Allah is great. The (sheep) of the battalion!” Muslims started shouting: “Allahu akbar” after the Prophet (sws). The Prophet (s) said to Ali: What prevented you from killing him? Ali said: He asked me for Allah and kinship. I was too embarrassed to kill him afterwards.

After that, Imam 'Ali (as) resisted. He killed the flag bearers one by one. Ibnul Atheer and other historians said:

“The Muslims killed the standard-bearers and she was thrown to the ground; no one approached him. Then Amra bint Alqama al-Harithiyya took the standard and raised it and then the Quraysh gathered around the standard. Then a slave of Bani Abd ad-Dar, who was very strong, took the standard and was also killed. The one who killed the flag bearers was Ali bin Abu Talib. Abu Rafi' said so.

People fought hard. Hamza, Ali, Abu Dijana and some of the Muslims did well in the battle. Allah granted them victory and the polytheists were defeated. The women of the polytheists fled to the mountain. Muslims invaded the polytheist camp to steal their property. When the archers saw their companions stealing, they left their places in the ravine and hastened to steal as well, forgetting what the Prophet (sws) had commanded.

When Khalid bin al-Waleed, who was with the polytheists that day, saw that the archers in the pass were few, he killed them and attacked the Prophet's companions from behind. The fleeing polytheists returned with activity and fought and defeated the Muslims after killing seventy Muslim heroes including Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib, the Lion of Allah and His Messenger.

On that day the Prophet (sws) fought fiercely until all his arrows ended. His bow was broken and he was wounded in the cheek and forehead. One of his teeth was broken and his lip was cut open. Ibn Qam'a attacked him with his sword and wanted to kill him.

Imam 'Ali (as) and five men from Ansar who were then martyred fought in front of the Prophet (s) and defended him. Abu Diyana made himself like armor for the Prophet (sws). The arrows pierced Abu Dijana's back when he covered the Prophet (sws) with his body. Mus'ab bin Umayr fought valiantly and was later martyred. He was killed by Abu Qam'a who thought he had killed the Prophet (sws).

He returned to the Quraysh and said:

"Muhammad will be killed." People started crying, "Muhammad was killed! Mohammed was killed!” The Muslims fled aimlessly. The first to recognize the Prophet (sws) was Ka'b bin Malik. He cried out at the top of his voice, “O Muslims, this is the Messenger of Allah. Experienced. He is not dead.” The Prophet (sws) asked him to be silent.(So that the enemy can hear you and attack the Prophet (sws) again)

Then Imam 'Ali (as) and his companions brought the Prophet (s) to the ravine where he was hiding. Imam Ali (as) and his companions surrounded the Prophet (s) to defend him.

Ibn Jareer and Ibnul Atheer in theirstareksand other historians said:

“…the Prophet (sws) while he was in the ravine saw some polytheists. He said to Ali, "Attack them!" Ali attacked them, killing some of them and scattering the others. The Prophet (sws) saw another group of polytheists. He said to Ali, "Take them out!" Ali attacked them, killing some of them and scattering the others. Gabriel said: "O Messenger of Allah, this is help!" The Prophet (s) said: "He (Ali) is from me and I am from him." Gabriel said: "And I am both of you." Then one heard one Voice say: "No sword saves Thul Faqar(Thul Faqar was the famous sword of Imam Ali (as).)and no young man saved Ali!”

Imam 'Ali (as) started bringing water with his leather shield to wash the Prophet's wounds but the bleeding did not stop.(After that Fatima (sws) burned a piece of straw and sprinkled some ash on the wound and then the bleeding stopped. She attended the event. She hugged her father while he was hurt and she was crying.)

Hind (Abu Sufyan's wife) and her companions went to the Muslim martyrs and started mutilating their bodies. They made necklaces and rings from the martyrs' ears, noses and fingers. She gave her rings and necklaces to Wahshi for killing Hamza. Hind opened Hamza's chest and took out his liver. She chewed on it but found it uncomfortable and then expelled it.

Then Abu Sufyan approached the Muslims and said:"Muhammad is among you?" He repeated this three times. The Prophet (sws) said to his companions: "Don't answer him!"(Tareekh from Ibn Jareer, Tareekh from Ibnul Atheer, Tabaqat from Ibn Sa'd, Seera from al-Halabi, Seera from ad-Dahlani, al-Bdayeh wen-Nihayeh from Abul Fida' and all the history books that recorded the events of the battle from Uhud.)

Abu Sufyan said: "Oh Umar, I adjure you by Allah, did we kill Muhammad?” Umar said: “By Allah, no, you did not. He listens to your speech.(As if the Prophet (sws) would not be safe from Abu Sufyan and his men who would attack him if they knew he was alive; therefore he ordered his companions not to answer Abu Sufyan, and as if 'Umar when he answered Abu Sufyan was not afraid and did not think that the Prophet's (sws) caution was justified!)

'Umar preferred their opinion when he replied to Abu Sufyan on the Prophet's (s) instruction to forbid them to reply to Abu Sufyan.

Espionage and its prohibition

Allah said:

“O you who believe, avoid most of itDistrust, for surely in some cases distrust is a sin, and do not spy or let any of you slander others. Do any of you like to eat meat fromyour dead brother? But you detest it; and beware of (their duty to) Allah, Allah is veritableReturning often (to mercy), merciful” (Quran 49:12).

The Prophet (s) said: "Avoid suspicion! Suspicion is the wrong speech. Don't spy on one another, don't hate one another, don't envy one another, and don't oppose one another. to be brothers..."

But Umar found during his rule that espionage brought benefit and benefit to the state. He patrolled at night and scouted out during the day. One night while he was on patrol in Medina, he heard a man singing in his house. He climbed the wall of the man's house. He found a woman with him and a bottle of wine. He said to the man: "O enemy of Allah, did you think that Allah protects you while you disobey Him?"

The man said, “O Ameerul Mo'mineen, don't hurry! If I have committed one sin, you have committed three sins; Allah said:"Don't Spy" (49:12)but you looked and he said:"..eenter houses by their gates” (2:189)but you rosethe wall and He said: “Greet when entering housesmutual" (24:61)but you didn't greet us. Umar said: 'That would be itwould you do me any good if I forgive you?” The man said, “Yes, I would.” So Umar forgave him and left.(Makarim al-Akhlaq por al-Khara'ity, Kanzol Ummal, vol. 2 S.167, Shareh Nahjul Balagha, vol. 3 S.96, Ihya'ul Uloom por al-Ghazali, S.137.)

As-Sadiy said:

“One night Umar went out with Abdullah bin Mas'ood. He saw a firelight. He (with Ibn Mas'ood) followed the light until it entered the house. There was a lamp in the house. He went in, leaving Abdullah bin Mas'ood in the courtyard. There was an old man drinking wine and a singer was singing to him. Suddenly, Umar attacked the old man and said to him: "I have never seen an uglier scene than the scene of an old man waiting his end!"

The old man lifted his head and said, “Actually, what you did is uglier than what you saw me do; You spied while Allah forbade snooping and you entered the house without permission. Umar said: "You are right." So he went out, bit his clothes, cried and said: "May Umar's mother miss him!"... The old man avoided attending Umar's gatherings for some time.

One day when Umar was sitting in his gathering, the old man came to hide so as not to be seen by Umar and sat at the end of the gathering. Umar saw him and asked some of his companions to bring him. The old man thought that Umar would scold him. Umar said to him: "Come closer to me!" Umar even asked him to stay closer until he sat down next to him. Umar said to the man: "Bring your ear close to me!" He said to him: "I swear by Him who sent Muhammad with the truth that I have not told anyone what I saw from you, not even Ibn Mas'ud who was with me..."(Al-Qat' wes-Sariqa (Judgment and Roubo) by Abu al-Sheikh, Kanzol Ummal, vol. 2 p. 141)

Ash-Shi'bi sagte:

“Once Umar missed one of his companions. He said to Ibn Ouff: "Let's go to so-and-so's house." They went there and found that while he was sitting, the door of his house was open and his wife poured some into a glass and gave him a drink. Umar said to Ibn Ouff: "That kept you away from us!" Ibn Ouff said: "How do you know what is in the jar?" Umar said: Are you afraid that might be spying? Ibn Ouff said: Yes, it is spying. Umar said: Then how can we regret it? Ibn Ouff said: Don't let him know that you saw what he did!!...”(Canzol Ummal, vol. 2 Tradition No. 3694.)

Al-Musawwir bin Makhrama narrated from Abdurrahman bin Ouff that he (Abdurrahman) and 'Umar were patrolling Medina one night. As they were leaving, a lamp was lit in one of the houses. They went to the house and found the door closed. There were some people in the house making loud noises. 'Umar took Abdurrahman's hand and said to him: This is the house of Rabee'a bin Umayya. You're drinking wine now. What are you going to do? Abdurrahman said: “I think we have done what Allah has forbidden; we spy". Then Umar went away and left her alone.(Narrado por Abdurrazaq, Abd bin Hameed e al-Khara'ity em Makarim al-Akhlaq, Kanzol Ummal, Bd. 2 Oberlieferung Nr. 3693, Mustadrak de al-Hakim, Bd. 4 S. 377, Talkhees of ath-Thahabi.)

Tawoos disse:

“One night Umar went on patrol. He passed a house where some people were drinking wine. He called out to them (from outside): "Are you committing sins?" Some of them said to him: "Allah has forbidden you to do that!" He came back and left them alone.(Canzol Ummal, vol. 2 S.141.)

Abu Qulaba said: 'Umar narrated that Abu Mihjan ath-Thaqafi was drinking wine with his friends at his house. One day Umar broke into Abu Mihyan's house. Abu Mihjan said to him: “O Ameerul Mo'mineen, this is not permissible for you. Allah forbade him from spying.” Umar asked Zayd bin Thabit and Abdurrahman bin al-Arqam and they said to him: “He is right, O Ameerul Mo'mineen.” Umar went and left him alone.”(ibid.)

Those who have followed Umar's espionage traditions will clearly see that espionage is part of his policy. As if he thought that legal penalties would be waived when the ruler made mistakes; therefore he does not punish any of these sinners. However, he didn't hurt any of them. We don't know how content he was to end his espionage in this way with no effect on those sins! He encouraged sinners to commit more sins when they saw this leniency from their Imam!!

Legislation limiting women's dowries

A woman's dowry should be what a Muslim man has; like material properties, religious things, or some types of services. The spouses decide for themselves whether it is too much or too little, as long as it is not so little that it is no longer worth anything, like a grain of wheat, for example. It is desirable that the cost was no more than a year, which is about five hundred dirhams.(According to the value of the season.)

Umar once decided to forbid excess dowry for women in order to facilitate marriages and keep young people away from adultery and sins. One day he gave a speech on the subject. He said in his speech: "If I am informed that a woman's dowry exceeds the dowry of the wives of Allah's Messenger, I will get it back." A woman stood up and said to him: "Allah has not left it up to you to decide about it to decide. Allah said:

“And if you want (a) wifesomeone else's place and you gave one of them a lot of gold, so take nothing from him; would you accept it by slandering (them) and(does she)mis-manifest. And how can you bear it when one of you has already gone to the other, and they have firmly bonded with you?(Quran 4:20-21).

He's changed his mindand gave up his decision and said:"Aren't you surprised by an Imam who was wrong and a woman who was right? She competed with her Imam and defeated him.” (Sharh Nahjul Balagha, vol. 3 p.96 and mentioned by other historians and hadith scholars.)

In another tradition, Umar said:

“Everyone is more aware than Umar. You hear me say it, and you will not deny it until a woman no more conscientious than her wives refutes me.(Az-Zamakhshari in his Kashshaf in interpreting the above verse.)

Another tradition said:

“A woman stood up and said: “O Ibn al-Khattab, Allah gives us and you deprive us (of our rights)” and she recited the above mentioned verse. Umar said: “All people are more conscious than Umar.” So he is resigned from his decision.”

(At-Tafseer al-Kabir by ar-Razi, Volume 3, p. 175. Ar-Razi stumbled in his speech while speaking on this verse. He said, "I think the verse contains no evidence that exceeding the dowry is permissible...until the end of his tortuous speech in which he wanted to refute the woman to defend 'Umar but unwittingly complicated the situation. See Tareekh Umar bin al-Khattab by Abul Faraj al-Jawzy, p.150. has a tradition narrated by Abdullah bin Mus'ab and another by Ibn al-Ajda' showing Umar's speech in which he decided to forbid the woman's excessive dowry and refutation, leading Umar to retract his decision , after confessing that the woman was right.)

Umar's supporters justified this event as proof of his justice and confession! And how many such cases did he have with men and women showing their righteousness and confession whenever they admired a saying or a deed!

As happened to him with the Prophet (sws) when he was asked about some things he didn't like. Al-Bukhari mentioned that Abu Musa al-Ash'ary had said:

"One day the Prophet (sws) was asked about some things which he disliked, as neither concerning sensible people nor among the matters which the Prophets were sent to explain. When his companions asked him many of these questions, he became angry because they insisted on stupid things that were of no use to them.

Then he said to them: “Ask me”, as if he saw that they were ashamed or shy because they made him angry, and therefore wanted to exonerate them and show them his mercy by saying to them: “Ask me ." Abdullah bin Huthafa asked him: "O Messenger of Allah, who is my father?" The Prophet (s) replied: "Your father is Huthafa." Another who was Sa'd bin Salim asked him: "O Messenger Allah, who is my father?" The Prophet (s) said: "Your father is Salim, the Mawla of Abu Shayba." They asked the Prophet (s) these questions because people were suspicious of his lineage. When Umar saw that the Prophet (sws) was very angry, he said: "O Messenger of Allah, we regret everything that makes you angry."

'Umar was pleased when the Prophet (sws) confirmed that Abdullah was the son of Huthafa and Sa'd the son of Salim as their mothers claimed.

Al-Bukhari also mentioned in hissahihthat Abdullah bin Huthafa asked the Prophet (s) who his father was and the Prophet (s) told him that his father was Huthafa.

Muslim mentioned in hissahih:

“Abdullah bin Huthafa has been attributed to someone other than his real father. When his mother heard about his question to the Prophet (sws) about his real father, she said to him: "I have never seen a more disrespectful son than you! Did you think your mother did what women did in pre-Islamic times, so that you would embarrass them in front of people?"

When 'Umar heard the Prophet (s) answer to Abdullah, he knelt down in front of the Prophet (s) and, amazed at the Prophet's (s) answer, said that he approved of Abdullah's mother's statement:"We are satisfied with Allah as God, Islam as a religion and Mohammed as a prophet."(Sahih al-Bukhari, Bd. 1S.19.)

Umar said this with joy because the Prophet (sws) covered many mothers who committed adultery in pre-Islamic times; however, belief in Islam canceled (forgave) the previously committed sins.

Change legal sanctions

Once the slaves of al-Hatib bin Balta'a participated in stealing a camel from a Merina tribesman. They were brought before 'Umar and confessed that they had done so. Umar ordered Katheer bin as-Salt to cut off his hands. When they were taken away as punishment, 'Umar brought them back and sent for his master's son, Abdurrahman bin Hatib, saying to him:

"I swear by Allah, if you hadn't kept them busy and starved, I would have cut off your hands. By Allah, since I did not do it, I will fine you that will make you suffer greatly..."(A'lam al-Muwaqqi'in, S. 32, Fajr al-Islam von Ahmad Ameen, S. 287, al-Isaba von Ibn Hajar, Bd. 2 Biography of Abdurrahman bin Hatib.)

By not punishing the stealing slaves, Umar might think that because of a famine they were forced to steal the camel to satisfy their hunger and therefore might be among those of whom the verse in the Qur'an had spoken:

"But who is takenout of necessity, without desire or transgression, it is not a sin for him” (Quran 2:173).

But they confessed to the theft, not claiming that necessity prompted them to do so. And if they claimed this, the ruler should have asked them what was supposed to prove his claim, but 'Umar didn't stop feeling sorry for them and being strict with Abdurrahman bin Hatib. We don't know how Umar knew that masters starved their slaves who were forced to steal!

Take illegal ransom

Once some people from Yemen came as guests to Abu Kharash al-Huthali, the Companion and Poet, during the Hajj season. He took his waterskin and went at night to bring them some water. On the way back, before reaching his guests, he was bitten by a snake. He ran to them, gave them water and said to them: "Boil your sheep and eat!" He did not tell them what had happened to him. When morning came Abu Khurash was dead. They buried him before leaving.

When the news reached Umar, he became very angry and said: "If there had not been a Sunna (rite) I would have ordered that no Yemenis be received and I would have written to all countries about it." Then he wrote to his Emir in Yemen and ordered him to seize the men invited by Abu Khurash al-Huthali to demand ransom from Abu Khurash from them and punish them severely for their actions !!!(Al-Istee'ab von Ibn 'Abd al-Birr, Hayat al-Haywan von ad-Dimyari, Kap. from "Cobra")

punishment for adultery

Ibn Sa'd mentions itPlate(Bd.3, S.205.)that Burayd once came to 'Umar and spread his quiver. A piece of paper emerged from the quiver. Umar took it and read it. It contained a few lines of poetry.

He said to his companions: "Send to Ja'da of the tribe of Sulaym." When Ja'da arrived, Umar, after tying him up, whipped him with a hundred lashes and forbade him to visit a woman whose husband was absent.

There was no evidence to punish this man for those lines of poetry that no one knew who wrote. They only incited the Caliph against Ju'da by claiming that he committed sins against girls from the tribes of Sa'd bin Bakr, Sulaym, Juhayna and Ghifar, tied them up and tried to violate their honor. That was all Ju'da was ascribed to poetry in these verses.

Even if it were to prove true, punishing the man with this legal penalty would not be enough. Yes, it required that he be reprimanded and censured. What the Caliph did may be of that nature, but what difference was there between what he did to this man and what he did to al-Mugheera bin Shu'ba, you will see shortly inshallah.

Annulment of al-Mugheera's sentence

Al-Mugheera bin Shu'ba committed adultery with some married women like Umm Jameel bint Amr of the Qays tribe and this event was one of the most famous events in Arab history. It was the seventeenth year of Hijra. All historians who recorded the events of that year mentioned this event in their books. Abu Bakra,(Not Abu Bakr.)who was one of the pious Companions of the Prophet (sws) and one of the keepers of the prophetic traditions, Nafi' bin al-Harith who was also one of the Companions of the Prophet (s) and Shibl bin Ma'bad opposed al -Mugheera in this case.

The testimony of these three men was clear and sure that they saw al-Mugheera committing his sin with their eyes, but when the fourth witness, Ziyad bin Sumayya, came to testify, the Caliph made him understand that he did not intend , to embarrass al-Mugheera and so he asked him what he had seen. He (the fourth witness) said: “I heard rapid breathing and saw him sleeping in her abdomen.” Umar asked him: “Did you see how he (…)
(…) and take it out like a stick in a pot of cabbage?” He said, “No, but I saw him lift her legs up and I saw his balls dangling between her thighs. I saw strong motivation and heard loud breathing.” Umar asked, “Did you see how he put his… in and out like a stick in a pot of cabbage?” He said, “No, I didn't.” Umar said: "Allah is great! O Mugheera, rise up and defeat them!” He carried out legal sanctions on the Three Witnesses.

Here are the details of this event as the judge Ahmad ibn Khilikan mentions in his bookWafiyyat al-A'yan. He said: As for the matter of al-Mugheera bin Shu'ba and the witnesses against him... 'Umar appointed al-Mugheera bin Shu'ba as Emir of Basra. He left Darul Imara (ruler's office) around noon and Abu Bakra often met him and asked: "Where does the Emir go?!" He said, "To do something." Abu Bakra said: "The Emir is visited and he does not come!"

He often sought out a woman named Umm Jameel bint Amr whose husband was al-Hajjaj bin Utayk bin al-Harith bin Wahab al-Jashmi...while Abu Bakra and his brothers Nafi', Ziyad and Shibl bin Ma'bad were sons of Sumayya were in her room and Umm Jameel bint Amr was in the opposite room, the wind opened the door of Umm Jameel's room and they saw al-Mugheera and the woman making love. Abu Bakra said, "It is a trial that is afflicting you! Look!” They watched until they were sure what al-Mugheera and the woman had done.

Abu Bakra waited until al-Mugheera left. He said to him, "Since you are doing this, then you must retire from the emirate!" Al-Mugheera went to guide the people in offering Dhuhr prayer and Abu Bakra also went there. Abu Bakra said to al-Mugheera: "By Allah, you are not leading us in prayer after committing your sin!" The people said: "Let us lead him in prayer, for he is the Emir and you are writing to Caliph Umar about it.” They wrote to Umar and he commanded them all; al-Mugheera and the witnesses come to him.

When they arrived, Umar was sitting in his meeting calling the witnesses and al-Mugheera. Abu Bakra stepped forward and 'Umar asked him, "Have you seen him between her thighs?" Abu Bakra said: "Yes, by Allah, as if I saw smallpox slits on your thighs!" Al-Mugheera said to him: "You were very precise in your appearance!" Abu Bakra said: "Yes, I wanted to be sure what Allah would shame you to." 'Umar said to Abu Bakra: "Not until you testified that you saw how he inserted his (…) into her (…) like a stick into a cabbage jar.” Abu Bakra said, “Yes, I witnessed that.” Umar said: "O Mugheera, a quarter of you is gone!"

Then Umar called Nafi' and asked him: "What do you testify?" He said: "Testimony of what Abu Bakra saw." 'Umar said: "Not until you testified that you saw him making out with her like a stick in a cabbage jar." He said: "Yes, until you reach the top." Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said to al-Mugheera: "Your half is gone!" Then Umar called the third witness and asked him: "What are you witnessing?" He said: "As a testimony of my two companions." Umar said to al-Mugheera: "Three thirds of you are gone!"

Then Umar wrote to Ziyad who was absent. When Ziyad arrived, 'Umar held his meeting at the mosque. The chiefs of the Muhajireen and the Ansar attended the meeting. When 'Umar saw Ziyad coming he said, 'Come to me! I see a man that Allah will not embarrass a man of Muhajireen with his tongue!' Then 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) raised his head to him and said: 'What is the matter with you, O bustard dung?'

It was said that al-Mugheera had approached Ziyad and Ziyad said: "No cache for a perfume after a bride!" Al-Mugheera said to him: "O Ziyad, remember Allah and remember the Day of Resurrection. Allah, His Book, His Messenger and Ameerul Mo'mineen spared my blood except when you say what you have not seen. Don't let a bad scene tempt you into saying something you didn't see. By Allah, if you were between my abdomen and her abdomen, you would not see me (…) penetrating her (…).”

Ziyad's eyes began to weep and his face turned red. He said, "O Ameerul Mo'mineen, I did not see exactly what others saw, but I saw a state of lovemaking and heard rapid breathing and saw him sleeping in his abdomen." Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) asked him: "Did you see how he put it in a cabbage jar like a stick?" He said: "No, I didn't." Ziyad is reported to have said, "I saw him lift her legs and I saw his testicles dangling between her thighs, then I saw strong motivation and heard loud breathing." 'Umar said: 'Did you see how he put it like a stick in a pot of cabbage?' He said no.' 'Umar said: 'Allah is great! O Mugheera, rise up and defeat them!” Al-Mugheera lashed Abu Bakra with eighty lashes and then he lashed the rest.

Umar admired Ziyad's words and overturned al-Mugheera's legal punishment. Abu Bakra said after being flogged, "I testify that al-Mugheera did such and such." Umar wanted to flog him again, but Ali bin Abu Talib said to him, "If you flog him, you must your friend (al-Mugheera) stone.” 'Umar left Abu Bakra alone and asked him for penance. Abu Bakra said: "You ask me to repent just to accept my testimony." Umar said: "Yes." Abu Bakra said: "As long as I live I will never bear witness between two people." When the witnesses flogged al-Mugheera said: "Praise be to Allah who has dishonored you." Umar said: "Allah has dishonored a place where they saw you."

Umar bin Shayba mentioned in his bookAkhbar al-Basra(the news from Basra) that when Abu Bakra was being flogged, his mother killed a sheep and put its skin on Abu Bakra's back because it was said that he had been flogged very badly. Abdurrahman bin Abu Bakra said his father Abu Bakra swore he would never speak to Ziyad as long as he lived. When Abu Bakra was near death, he recommended that no one should pray for him (after his death) except Abu Barza al-Aslami, whom the Prophet (sws) associated as Abu Bakra's brother. When Ziyad found out about this, he went to Kufa. As for al-Mugheera bin Shu'ba, he was grateful to Ziyad and did not forget his favours.

Umm Jameel once came to Umar bin al-Khattab during the Hajj season while al-Mugheera was present. Umar asked al-Mugheera, "Oh Mugheera, do you know this woman?" He said, "Yes, she is Umm Kulthoom bint Ali." Umar said to him, "Are you confusing me? By Allah, I don't think Abu Bakra lied when he testified against you and I found out that you were afraid I would stone you with stones from heaven!

Shaykh Abu Ishaq ash-Shirazi said in his bookal-Muhatthib: “… and three men testified against al-Mugheera; Abu Bakra, Nafi' and Shibl bin Ma'bad... Ziyad said: "I saw buttocks and two legs like two donkey's ears and I heard loud breathing but I knew what was behind." And so 'Umar knocked out the three witnesses and didn't punish al-Mugheera. In the jurisprudence, Alis (may Allaah be pleased with him) was discussed, who said to 'Umar: "If you whip him, you must stone your friend". Abu Nasr bin as-Sabbagh said: He wanted to tell Umar that if this testimony was like another witness, the number of witnesses would be completed (four witnesses), otherwise you would have flogged him as your first witness) and Allah is himself its conscious! ”

This is the end of Ibn Khilikan's speech on this tragedy and its sorrows. Refer toWafiyyat al-A'yan, Band 2, Biography of Yazeed bin Ziyad al-Himyari.

Al-Hakim mentioned this event in hisMustadrak, Vol. 3, p. 448, biography of al-Mugheera. Ath-Thahabi mentioned this in hisTalkhees al-Mustadrakand all the historians who mentioned the biographies of al-Mugheera, Abu Bakra, Nafi' and Shibl bin Ma'bad and the historians who recorded the events of the seventeenth year of Hijrah mentioned the details of that event.

His severity towards Jabala bin al-Abham

Once a deputation of five hundred horsemen from Akk and Jafna came trotting by on their Arabian horses, in robes trimmed with gold and silver brocade, and at their head stood Jabala, who had put on his crown, in which was the earring of his grandmother Maria. . They all became Muslims and the Muslims were pleased and satisfied with them and their followers who would join them. Jabala and his companions participated in the Hajj season with the Caliph from their first year as Muslims.

As Jabala was circling the Kaaba, a man from Fazara stepped on his loincloth and untied it. Jabala hit the man. The man turned to Umar. Umar ordered Jabala to let the man hit him or to please the man. 'Umar was very strict in his order until Jabala became desperate. As night fell, Jabala and his companions left for Constantinople and all reluctantly became Christians. They found favor with Hercules and gained honor and splendor beyond what they desired.(Al-Iqd al-Fareed von Ibn Abd Rabbih al-Andalusi, Bd. 1, S. 187, Arabic Lessons for Secondary Schools, Bd. 1, S. 62, Ausgabe von al-Kashshaf Press, Beirut, zitiert nach al-Aghani von Abul Faraj al-Isfahani.)

Despite all of this, Jabala often cried over what he had lost through the religion of Islam. He wrote the following lines of poetry:

"Noble ones became Christians because of a slap in the face,
It wouldn't hurt if you had a little patience!
I was surrounded by stubbornness and zeal
And I sold my good eye for a one-eyed eye.
I wish my mother hadn't fathered me!
I wish I had gone back to the people that Umar said!
I wish I could raise cattle in the desert!
I was either a prisoner in Rabi'a or Mudhar!

I said: I wish the caliph had not expelled this Arab emir and his people, although he had tried by all means to please this man from Fazara, whether the emir knew it or not.
I don't know! It was too far away for Umar to do such a thing!

Umar wanted to break Jabala's pride from the first opportunity! And that was his habit with all the noble and honorable! This is well known to sensible people who have studied their behavior.

You exceeded your strictness towards Khalid when he was one of your relatives.

How big was the difference between her two days; his day with his friend al-Mugheera when he called off his due punishment for adultery and his day with Khalid when he insisted on stoning him and if Abu Bakr had not been there Khalid would have been stoned. Khalid's strength and vanity made Umar very strict with him. So also Jabala; his pride and nobility meant that Umar was also very strict with him, unlike al-Mugheera, who was more obedient to Umar than his shadow and, despite his cunning and cunning, was more cruel than his shoes; therefore 'Umar kept him despite his lust.

Umar's policy called for terrorizing the citizens by being harsh on honorable and proud people like Jabala and Khalid. He may have frightened the citizens by punishing their close relatives, as he did his son Abu Shahma and Umm Farwa, Abu Bakr's sister, and he may have done this to those who are neither in politics nor on other ways were useful he has made. made for Ja'da as-Salami, Dhabee' at-Tameemi, Nasr bin Hajjaj, his cousin Abu Thu'ayb, poor Abu Hurayra and the like.

He maintained thrift in his food, residence and sumpter. He was patient with desires and abstained from pleasures. He was content with the livelihood. He spread his boots with open arms among the ummah, without preferring himself or his family to others. He enriched the treasury. He was very severe in punishing his officers... and many similar things that helped him guide the ummah with his staff, silence tongues and bridle mouths.

None of his officers escaped punishment, except for Mo'awiya, despite the differences between them. He never punished Mo'awiya or blamed him for anything. He had given him the freedom to do whatever he wanted. He said to him, "I do not command you, nor do I forbid you." Anyone who knew Umar would know that he favored Mo'awiya by something in his mind!

His severity towards Abu Huraira

Umar had appointed Abu Huraira as thatwaliof Bahrain in the twenty-first year of Hijra. In the twenty-third year he deposed him and appointed Othman bin Abul Aas ath-Thaqafi in his place. The Caliph not only deposed Abu Hurayra, but also saved him ten thousand dinars for the treasury, claiming that he stole them as they came from the Muslims. It was a famous case.

Ibn Abd Rabbih al-Maliki mentioned (in his bookal-Iqd al-Farid, on the first pages of vol. 1), whom Caliph Umar sent to Abu Hurairah and said to him: You know very well that I have appointed you as himwalifrom Bahrain and you were barefoot and now I hear you bought horses for sixteen hundred dinars. Abu Hurayra said: "We had some horses that they carried and gifts that they hoarded." The Caliph said: "I counted your livelihood and income and found that it ended more than yours and you must return it ." Abu Hurairah said, "You cannot do that." Umar said, "Yes, I can and will pat you on the back."

Then Umar got up and hit him with his staff(A dried bunch of dates that he used to hold in his hand.)until he hit him and said to him:

"Return money." Abu Hurairah said: Release me for the sake of Allah. Umar said: That would be if it were halal (permissible) and you dutifully repay it. Have you come from the farthest corner of Bahrain with the people's taxes in your pocket, neither for Allah nor for the Muslims? Umayma(Umayma was the mother of Abu Huraira. This word of the caliph was one of the worst insults.)fathered you just to feed donkeys.”

Ibn Abd Rabbih mentioned that Abu Hurayra had said: "When Umar dropped me off in Bahrain, he said to me: "O enemy of Allah and enemy of His Quran, have you stolen the wealth of the Muslims?" Abu Hurayra said: "I am not Enemy of Allah or His Book, but I am an enemy of your enemies. I have not stolen wealth from the Muslims.” Umar said, “Then how did you get ten thousand dinars?” He said, “We had some horses that spawned, gifts that accumulated, and supplies that multiplied. " Umar took the money from me but when I said Fajr (dawn) prayer I asked Allah to forgive him.”

This tradition was also mentioned by Ibn Abul-Hadeed in his bookSharh Nahjul-Balagha, Bd. 3,(p.104, Egyptian edition.)and was mentioned by Ibn Sa'd in his bookat-Tabaqat al-Kubra(Biography of Abu Huraya)(Bd.4, S.90.)narrated from Muhammad bin Seereen that Abu Hurayra had said: "Umar said to me: 'O enemy of Allah and enemy of your Qur'an, you have stolen the wealth of the Muslims...etc.' Ibn Hajar mentioned this tradition in his bookal-Isababut he modified it and changed the truth in a way that was inconsistent with all others in order to purify the glory of Abu Huraira. But he forgot that he was slandering the man who slapped Abu Huraira on the back, took his money and deposed him.

His severity towards Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas

Umar appointed Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas as Emir of Kufa and then he was told that Sa'd was hiding from the people in his palace. Umar sent for Muhammad bin Maslama and said to him:

"Go to Sa'd in Kufa and burn your palace over him and do nothing until you return to me!" Muhammad went to Kufa and set fire to the palace to surprise Sa'd. Sa'd came out and said, "What is this?" Muhammad said, "This is the decree of the Caliph."

He left it until it was set on fire and then went to Medina.

His harshness towards Khalid bin al-Waleed

When Khalid was the Emir of Qinnisreen (of Umar), al-Ash'ath bin Qays asked him for a gift. Khalid presented him with ten thousand (dirham or dinar). Umar knew this where Umar was not ignorant of Khalid's deeds. Umar sent for the postman and wrote with him to Abu Ubayda, his emir in Hims (in Syria):

“Have Khalid stand on one leg, tie the other with his turban and remove his cap in public in front of state officials and dignitaries until he says where he presented it to al-Ash'ath. If it is your own money it will be waste and Allah does not like spendthrift and if it is the wealth of the Ummah it will be treason and Allah does not like traitors. Depose him anyway and merge his work with yours.

Abu Ubayda wrote to Khalid and Khalid went to him. So he gathered the people and sat on the minbar of the great mosque. The postman stood up and asked Khalid where he had given al-Ash'ath a gift from. Khalid did not answer while Abu Ubayda remained silent without saying anything. Bilal al-Habashi stood up and said: "Ameerul Mo'mineen (Umar) ordered this and that..."

He took off Khalid's turban and cap, made him stand up and tied his leg with the turban, then he asked him: 'From where did you gift al-Ash'ath? Is it your money or the Ummah's money?' He said, 'Of my money.' He let go of Khalid and put the cap and turban back on his head with his hands and said: "We obey our guardians, glorify them and serve them."

Khalid remained confused. He didn't know if he had been deposed or not because Abu Ubayda didn't tell him as he respected and glorified him. When Khaild's arrival in Umar was delayed, he suspected what had happened, so he wrote to Khalid:"You're deposed. Get out of the Emirate!”After that, Umar did not entrust any office to Khalid until his death.

Beat up and banished Lost'

One day a man came to Umar and said to him:

"O Ameerul Mo'mineen, Dhabi' at-Tameemi met us and started asking us about the interpretation of some verses of the Qur'an and said to me: 'O Allah, allow me to conquer you (Umar)!'One day, while 'Umar was sitting at a festival he was holding for the people, Dabee appeared in good clothes and a turban. He was eating with the people. When he finished eating, he asked Umar: "O Ameerul Mo'mineen, what is the meaning of this word of Allah:

„Weth-thariyat tharwa, wel-hamilat chifre“
"I swear by the wind that blows far and wide, so theseClouds bearing the burden (of small things in space)" (Quran51:1-2)

Umar said to him: "Woe to you! It's you!” Umar got up, bared his arms and began to whip the man until his turban fell off. He had two pigtails. Umar said, "I swear by Him in Whose Hand is Umar's soul, if I had seen you with your head shaved, I would have beheaded you." So he ordered the man arrested in a house.

Every day he took him to whip him with a hundred lashes. When he got well, 'Umar took him to whip him another hundred lashes. So he loaded him on a camel and sent him to Basra and wrote to his officer there Abu Musa and ordered him to forbid the people to mix with him. He ordered Abu Musa to make a speech in front of the people and tell them that Dabee wanted to gain knowledge, but he turned away. After that, Dhabee became mean among the people until his death while earlier he was the leader of his people.(Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Bd. 3S.122.)

Exilando Nasr bin Hajjaj

Abdullah bin Burayd disse:

“One night when Umar was on patrol, he came to a house where a woman was singing to other women:
"Is there any possibility to have some wine or to be with Nasr bin Hajjaj?"

Umar said: "As long as she lives she will not achieve that!" In the morning he sent for Nasr bin Hajjaj.(Era Nasr bin Hajjaj bin Alabit al-Bahzi as-Salami.)Umar looked at him and thought he was very handsome. He ordered him to collect the hair.

He did, and when his forehead came out, he got prettier. Umar asked him to put on a turban. He put on a turban and then his lush hair appeared under the turban and he looked more beautiful. Umar asked him to cut his hair. He cut his hair and looked very handsome. Then Umar said to him: 'O bin Hajjaj, you have charmed the women of Medina. Don't be my neighbor in the city where I live!' Then 'Umar exiled him to Basra. After spending some days in Basra, Nasr sent a letter to Umar containing some poem verses in which he had demonstrated his innocence and asked Umar to let him return to his homeland.

Umar said:"Certainly not while I am the ruler!"When Umar was killed, Nasr mounted his sumpter and joined his family in Medina.

Exceeding the legal penalty with your child

Umar's son Abdurrahman, surnamed Abu Shahma, once drank wine in Egypt when Amr bin al-Aas was the kingwalithere. thewaliAmr bin al-Aas ordered Abu Shahma's hair to be cut and then he was flogged in the presence of his brother Abdullah bin Umar as per the legal punishment. When 'Umar was informed of this, he wrote to 'Amr bin al-Aas to send Abu Shahma to himaband on a camel without a saddle. He emphasized this and commanded him with severe words.

Amr bin al-Aas sent Abu Shahma on condition that 'Umar had ordered and written to 'Umar that he had punished Abu Shahma with the legal penalty; cut his hair and whipped him in the courtyard and he swore by Allah that this was the place where the legal punishments were inflicted on Muslims and (ahlultimma) Christians and Jews. He sent the book with Abdullah bin Umar (son of Umar).

Abdullah bin Umar brought the book and his brother Abdurrahman and went to his father in Medina while Abdurrahman was hiringaband he could not walk because he was tired of sitting on the bare back of the camel all the way from Egypt to Medina. Umar became very strict with his son. He said to him: "O Abdurrahman, have you done this and that?" Then he called out: "Bring me the whips!"

Abdurrahman bin Ouff interceded with 'Umar and said to him: "O Ameerul Mo'mineen, he was punished with the legal punishment and his brother Abdullah was a witness." But 'Umar paid no attention to him and scolded him. Umar started whipping his son Abdurrahman (Abu Shahma), who was shouting at his father, “I am sick and you are going to kill me!” Umar never felt sorry for him and turned deaf to his son's cries until he counted the number of legal whips had ended. After that he arrested him and a month later Abdurrahman died.

(This was one of the most famous events in Umar's history. It has been mentioned by most historians. See Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 3p. 123. Ibn Abul Hadid mentioned in the same volume of his book that 'Umar whipped one of his sons to death for drinking wine. All historians who have spoken about Abu Shahma have mentioned this case like Ibn Abdul Birr in his Istee'ab, ad-Dimyari in Hayat al-Haywan and Ibn al-Jawzi in his book Tareekh Umar chap.77.)

When Amr bin al-Aas was trusted in the affairs of the Muslims (the legal punishments) and he was trusted around 'Umar, then he would tell 'Umar to punish Abu Shahma in the presence of his brother Abdullah, who was trusted the most would have. to his father from the family of al-Khattab; hence 'Umar had no evidence to punish his son again and if 'Amr bin al-Aas was not trustworthy and he was not faithful to his oath then how did 'Umar refer to him as thewalifrom Egypt to carry out the judgments and punishments of Allah, and how did he entrust to him the blood, honor and property of the people?

AfterShariahA sick person should not be punished until he is well again, and the punished (with a legal penalty) should not be imprisoned, especially if he is ill or imprisonment might harm him, but 'Umar liked to prefer his own opinion to court judgments.

Cutting down the Al-Hudaybiya tree

It was the tree under which the Prophet (sws) was honored by his companions to die for him. It was named after ar-Radhwan. Among the results of this homage was the great conquest of Mecca. Some of the Muslims often prayed under this tree to receive blessings and give thanks to Allah for the great victory they had gained after honoring under this tree.

When Umar heard that they were praying under this tree, he ordered the tree to be cut down. He said:"From today on, if anyone comes back to pray near this tree, I will kill him with the sword as an apostate is killed."(Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Bd. 1S.59.)

Glory to Allah! Praise be to God! Allah is great!!! Stunning! Yesterday the Prophet (saas) ordered him to kill Thul Khuwaisira, the leader of the hypocrites and he refrained from killing him because he respected his prayer and today he draws his sword to kill the believers who are subject pray this tree; the tree of air radhwan!!

There! Who made the blood of faithful prayer so cheap for him? This was the seed that grew and bore fruit in Najd (where Satan would appear).

How many seeds like this did Umar have to say to the Black Rock (the Kaaba):“You are just a rock; neither benefit nor harm. If I hadn't seen the Prophet (sws) kiss you, I would never have kissed you."

This word has become a principle on the basis of which many ignorant people forbid kissing the Holy Qur'an and glorifying the shrine of the Prophet (sws) and the other holy shrines. They lost so many virtues as Allah said:

„… zwhoever obeys the holy commandments of Allah, it is better for him with his Lord" (Qur'an22:30)e

"...and whoever respects the Signs of Allah, that is certain (the result) of the piety of the heart" (Qur'an22:32);

ethey didn't loveAllah sincerely, as one of the poets said:
"It was not the love of the country that filled my heart, but the love of those who lived in the country."

Umm Hani complains to the Prophet (sws) against him.

At-Tabarani mentioned inal-Kabira tradition narrated from Abdurrahman bin Abu Rafi' that Umm Hani bint Abu Talib said to the Prophet (sws):

"O Messenger of Allah, Umar bin al-Khattab met me and said to me: 'Muhammad will not benefit you at all.' The Prophet (s) became angry. He gave a speech in which he told the people: “Why do some pretend that my intercession does not benefit my family? My intercession will benefit Ham and Hakam.”(Ham and Hakam were two tribes of Yemen that had no relation to the Quraysh, the tribe of the Prophet.)

The Prophet (sws) was angry on another occasion when his aunt Safiyya's child died and he comforted her. When she left, a man(He was undoubtedly Umar bin al-Khattab.)found her and said:

"Your relationship with Muhammad will not benefit you." She started crying until the Prophet (sws) heard her voice and ran to her. She told him what had happened. He got angry and asked Bilal to announce the azan.

The Prophet (s) stood up to give a speech. He praised Allah and then said: "Why do some people pretend that my relatives (relatives) are not worth it? All relatives and means will be cut off on the Day of Resurrection except my relatives and means. My lineage is connected in this life and in the hereafter.”(Thakha'ir al-Uqba por Muhiuddeen em Tabari.)

The Day of Consultation (an-Najwa)

On that day all people lost their kindness except Imam 'Ali (as). He was the victor of this partnerless goodness; neither Abu Bakr nor 'Umar nor any people. Here is the verse from the Qur'an from that day and think about it and don't be among those that Allah meant when he said:

"AlsoDon't they think about the Koran? No, in the heart are locks" (Quran 47:24)

This is the verse:

"Oh you, who believe! If youConsult the messenger and then offer something to charity before your consultation. that is better for you and purer” (Quran 58:12).

NotHas anyone already acted on this?Verse other than Imam ‘Ali (as). This was confirmed by the consensus of the umma. Az-Zamakhshari inal-Kashshaf, at-Tabari emat-Tafsir al-Kabir, re-Tha'labi emat-Tafsir al-Adheem, ar-Razi emMafatih al-Ghayband the other interpreters have said so in their books when interpreting this verse.

Al-Hakim mentions himMustadrak(Bd.2, S.842.)that Imam 'Ali (as) said:

“There is a verse in the Book of Allah according to which no one has acted before me and according to which no one will act after me. It is the verse of the question (an-Najwa). I had a dinar and sold it for ten dirhams. Whenever I consulted the Prophet (s) I offered a dirham before my consultation and then the verse was canceled by this:

“Are you afraid of not (being able to) give alms before your appointment? If you don't do this and Allah turns to you (mercifully), keep praying and pay the poverty tax and obey Allah and His Messenger. and Allah knows what you do” (Quran 58:13).

(After mentioning this tradition in his Mustadrak, Al-Hakim said: It is a true tradition according to the terms of the two sheikhs; al-Bukhari and Muslim, but they did not mention him.” The same was said of ath-Thahabi after he mentioned it in his Talkhees al-Mustadrak.)

This rebuke included Umar and the rest of the Companions except Imam 'Ali (as) because he never (fearing of not being able to give alms) or defied the order that he had to do penance.

Ar-Razi emerged here as the one who “..cannot arise except ashe whom Satan has cast down by (his) touch arises” (Quran2:275). He said:

“This verse grieves the hearts ofpoor and grieves them because they cannot pay alms, embarrasses the rich because it imposes a heavy duty on them, and causes Muslims to criticize one another. Acting upon this verse causes separation and melancholy, and ceasing to act upon it causes warmth. What causes warmth is worth following than what causes separation and melancholy..."

How strange was his delirium! This contradicts the saying of Allah:
“..this is better for you andreiner"and your saying"Then if you don't and Allah turns to you (mercifully), keep on praying.".

Relate to this delusion in yoursexplanationMafatih al-Ghayb,Bd.8 S.168.

If only he had said:

“Zakah and Hajj torment the hearts of the poor and bring them grief because the poor cannot do them, and they (Zakah and Hajj) embarrass the rich because they impose heavy duties on them; therefore it causes separation and sadness, and omitting it causes cordiality and friendship, and whatever causes cordiality and friendship is worth following as what causes separation and sadness; Therefore, according to the analogy of this (Imam), it is more valuable to give up Zakat and Hajj.

In fact, your analogy requires abandoning all religions so as not to lead to divisions and disagreements. We turn to Allah to save us from the torpor of the mind and the delirium of the tongue. There is no power except with Allah, the Mighty, the Most High!

Your leniency to Mo'awiya

Umar left Mo'awiya who had been appointed by Umarwaliof Sham, completely free to do as he pleased, to behave as his perverted mind led him, to rule as he pleased. He lived relaxed and indifferent to anything but what he chose for himself as opposed to what 'Umar admired in his emirs.

Umar once saw Mo'awiya in Sham surrounded by finery like that of Kasra (the Emperor of Persia) and wearing heavily brocaded clothes which Umar's nature disliked and hated, but he did not say to him except: 'I do not command and I do not command you nor forbid you. He gave him permission and choice to do as he pleased, and so he ravaged left and right and there was none who dared oppose his vanity and corruption. One of the fruits of this seed that Umar cultivated Mo 'awiya was his transgression against Imam 'Ali (as) in Siffeen and after that it is what he did against Imam Hasan (as) in Sabaat.

Since then, the Umayyads have confiscated Allah's wealth, enslaved His people and taken Allah's religion as a vehicle to fulfill their greed and inclinations. We are Allah's and to Him we will return and those who do evil will know with what (great) calamity they will fall!

Your illegal order

He often ordered some things against themShariahand then he stopped after being reminded of it.


Muhammad bin Mukhallad al-Attar mentioned in hisFawaid:(Al-Isaba by Ibn Hajar, Biography of Ma'ath bin Jabal.)“Once Umar ordered a pregnant woman to be stoned. Ma'ath bin Jabal denied this and said to 'Umar, "If you have evidence against her, you have no evidence against the one in her abdomen." Umar reversed his judgment and said: 'Women have become unable to endure someone like Ma'ath. Without Ma'ath, Umar would die.”


al-Hakim mentions hisMustadrak(Band 4, S. 389.)what Ibn Abbas said:

“Once a mad pregnant woman was brought to Umar and he decided to stone her. Ali said to him, "Didn't you know that three are exempt from duties: a madman until he comes to his senses, a child until he grows up, and a sleeper until he wakes up?" Then 'Umar released the woman. "

This woman was different from that woman. The one that Ma'ath reminded the caliph of was not mad and the caliph could stone her but after she gave birth to her child and then the caliph would have to take care of the child after he stoned her mother but what the second wife, Umar couldn't stone her because she was crazy.

Judges of Judges Abdul Jabbar in his bookal-Mugnigave a long speech about the stoning of a pregnant woman and this was a point of discussion between him and Sharif al-Murtadha in his bookAsh Shafi. Ibn Abul Hadeed mentioned the arguments of both inSharh Nahjul Balagha, Bd. 3 S. 150-152.

third party:

Ahmad bin Hanbal mentioned in hisMusnad(Bd.1, S.154.)what Abu Dhabyan al-Janbi had said:

“One day a woman who had committed adultery was brought to Umar, who ordered her to be stoned. Ali took the wife of Umar's men and prevented them from stoning her. They returned to 'Umar and told him that Ali bin Abu Talib had prevented them from carrying out Caliph 'Umar's order. Umar said, "He (Ali) didn't do that unless he knew something!" He sent for Ali. Ali came to Umar who was a bit angry.

He said to Ali: "Why did you prevent these men from carrying out my command?" Ali said: "Have you not heard the Prophet (s) say: "Three are free from being considered sinful; a sleeper until he wakes up, a child until he grows up, and a madman until he gets well”? He said, "Yes, I have." Ali said: "This woman is crazy. The adulterer may have committed the sin with her while she was insane.” Umar said, “I don't know!” Ali said, “I don't know either!” Umar freed the woman and did not stone her.

(Mustadrak of al-Hakim, Vol. 4, p. 389, Talkees al-Mustadrak of ath-Thahabi. Al-Bukahri summarized the tradition in his Sahih, Volume 4, Page 117 and said: “Ali said to 'Umar: You did not know that three are free from being considered sinful; a madman until he is sane, a child until he is grown, and a sleeper until he awakes.”)


Ibn al-Qayyim mentioned in his bookat-Turuq al-Hakamiyya taxa as-Siyasa ash-Shar'iyya(the wise ways in legal politics) that once a woman was brought to 'Umar and she confessed that she had committed adultery. Umar ordered the woman to be stoned. Ali asked him to delay the order a bit so that she would have an excuse that would save her from punishment.

He asked the woman:

“What made you commit adultery?” She said, “There was a shepherd with me (in the pasture) who had water and milk between his camels, but I didn't. I got thirsty and asked him for some water or milk. He refused to give me unless I (gave him my self). I refused to submit to him three times, but when I got very thirsty and thought I was about to die, I submitted to him and he gave me some water.” Ali said, “Allah is Great!“..butwhoever is driven to need without desire to go beyond the limit, then Allah is Forgiving, Merciful” (Quran 16:115).

Al-Bayhaqi explained itThe nameque Abu Abdurrahman as-Sulami havia dito:

“Once a woman became very thirsty. She passed a shepherd and asked him for some water, but he refused to give it to her unless she let him sleep with her. She submitted to him. Umar questioned the people about their stoning. Ali said, "She was forced into it and I think she should be released." Umar released her.

(At-Turuq al-Hakamiyya Gebühr as-Siyasa ash-Shar'iyya von Ibn al-Qayyim, S.53)


Ibn al-Qayyim disse:(Ibid., p.55.)“Another woman was brought to 'Umar and she confessed and confirmed that she had committed adultery. Ali was present at the time. He said, "She talks as if she doesn't know that (adultery) is impermissible." He didn't punish her.

Ibn al-Qayyim added: "This is an accurate view".


Ahmad Ameen said in his bookFajr al-Islam:(p.285 quoted from the book A'lam al-Muwaqqi'in.)

“Umar was offered a case that a man had been killed by his father's wife and her lover. Umar hesitated to kill two people for one. Ali said to him, "If a group of people take part in a robbery, will you cut off everyone's hands?" Umar said, "Yes, I will." Ali said, "It's the same here." He did as Ali told him and wrote to his officer, "Kill them both! If all the people of Sana'a were involved in killing him, I would kill them all.


Ibn Abul Hadid disse:

“Once Umar sent for a woman to ask her something. She was pregnant and miscarried the fetus out of fear of him. He asked the great Companions to issue him a fatwa on this. He was told, "You are not to blame because you are a disciplinarian." Ali told him, "If they wanted to praise you, they cheated you, and if that was their opinion, after trying their best, they did." she cheated herself. You must free a slave (believer) (as penance). Umar and the companions referred to Ali's opinion."(Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Band 1, S. 58.)


Umar was puzzled as to what to do with a man of the early Muhajireen who had fought at the Battle of Badr. He was Qudama bin Madh'oon. One day he was taken to Umar after drinking wine. Umar decided to whip him. He said to 'Umar: 'Why do you want to whip me? The Book of Allah is between me and you.' Umar said: 'Where does it say in the Book of Allah that I should not flog you?'

He said: "Allah says in His Book:

"In whichthose who believe and do good are not to blame for what they eat, if they heed (of their duty) and believe and do good, then they mind (of their duty) and believe, then they are (of their duty) mindful ) and doing good (to others), and Allah loves those who do good to (others).” (Quran 5:93).

"EUI come from the middle (those whobelieve and do good). I attended Badr, al-Hudaybiya, al-Khandaq and other events with the Prophet (sws).” Umar did not know how to answer. He said to his Companions: "One of you shall answer him!" Ibn Abbas said: "These verses were revealed as an apology to the Muslims who have died and as an admonition to the remaining believers, because Allah says:

"That's itWho believes! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones and (divination by) arrows are abominations of Satan's handwork: avoid such (abominations) that you may prosper" (Quran 5:90)

Then he recitedthe other verse below was:

"... they are careful (with theirduty) and believe and do good, then they take care (of their duty) and believe, then they take care (of their duty) and do good".
He added: "Allahforbidden to drink wine, would he then be pious and godly who drank wine after it was forbidden? Umar said: 'You are right. so what do you see Ali issued a fatwa to whip Qudama with eighty lashes. The punishment of a winegrower has become such since that day.(Mustadrak de al-Hakim, Bd. 4, S. 376, Talkhees al-Mustadrak von ath-Thahabi.)


Ibn al-Qayyim mentioned in his bookat-Turuk al-Hakamiyya, p.27 the case of a woman who had loved an Ansar young man, but when he did not answer her, she played a prank. She took an egg and poured its white on her dress and between her thighs and then she came to 'Umar crying. She said to him:"This (young) man raped and dishonored me in my family and that is the mark of what he did to me."Umar asked some women and they said that there was some semen on their clothes and body.

Then Umar wanted to punish the young man who was screaming for help and said:“Oh Ameerul Mo'mineen, make sure! By Allah, I have committed no sin. I never intended to do anything with her. She tried to seduce me into giving in to her, but I refused. There he was present. Umar asked him, "O Abul Hasan, what do you think of her?" Ali looked at the woman's cloth and asked for boiling water. He poured the hot water over the dress and the white was set. He took it, smelled it and tasted it and found that it tasted like egg. He rebuked the woman and she confessed the truth.


Ibn al-Qayyim in his bookat-Turuk al-Hakamiyya(S.30)mentioned that two men from Quraysh paid a woman one hundred dinars as a deposit and said to her:

"Don't give either of us the money back if the other doesn't have it." After a year, one of them came and said to the woman, "My friend died and I want the money." She refused to give him the money, saying, "You both told me not to do that to either of you Give money when the other has it. I won't give it to youHe asked her relatives and neighbors to stand in for her until she agreed to return the money.

After another year, the second man came to her and asked her to return the money. She said to him:"Your friend came to me pretending you died and I gave him the money."They went to 'Umar to plead their case. Umar wanted to judge the woman. She asked him to send her to Ali bin Abu Talib to hear the case.

Umar sent her to Ali who noticed that the two men had tricked the woman. He said to the man:"Didn't you ask the woman not to give the money back to either of you unless the other had it?" The man said, "Yes, we do." Then Ali said to him: “Go and bring your friend, then the woman will give you the money; Otherwise, you have no right to ask her anything.


Ahmad bin Hanbal mentioned in hisMusnad(Vol. 1, S.190.)a tradition narrated by Ibn Abbas that 'Umar was once puzzled by doubts in prayer (not sure how many rak'ahs anyone offered). He asked his servant:

"Oh boy, have you heard from the Prophet (sws) or one of his Companions if someone became unsure what to do in his prayer?" After a while, Abdurrahman bin Ouff came and asked 'Umar, "What is the matter with you?" Umar said: "I asked this boy if he had heard from the Prophet (sws) or one of his Companions if anyone doubted his prayer what to do." Abdurrahman said: "I heard the Prophet (sws) say: " If any of you become uncertain in your prayer..."

Consult this tradition; There is a fatwa from Abdurrahman that contradicts what the Shia have narrated from the Prophet (s).

There have been many cases like this! They showed that Umar soon submitted to the truth in such matters as he recognized it and submitted to anyone who reminded him of it when he ignored it; However, he was very strict in establishing his policy, paying no attention to anyone. He was very strict with his officers; either in their bodies or in their qualities. He often confiscated some of their money for the treasury and often treated them harshly with his staff!

He can burn down their houses on them as he had his Emir of Kufa, Sa'd bin Abu Waqqass, when he ordered his palace to be burned down. Once again he defeated Sa'd with his staff when Sa'd competed with the people to reach him. Again he (Umar) saw some people following Ubayy bin Ka'b on the road, so he raised his stick to hit Ubbay. Ubay said to him:"O Ameerul Mo'mineen, fearing Allah!" Umar said to him: “O Ibn Ka'b, what are these crowds behind you? Didn't you know that this is conceited to the devotees and mean to the devotees?"

Ödarrah(Darrah is a dried bunch of dates (after they've lost their fruit).)of 'Umar was a whip of torment which the great Companions feared until it was said to be more fearsome than the sword of al-Hajjaj.(Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 1 p.60. Al-Hajjaj was a tyrannical emir of the state of Omiada.)

He had brutally beaten Umm Farwa bint Abu Quhafa with hisdarrahwhen her brother Abu Bakr died and she began to weep for him with other women headed by Aa'isha. He ignored her position that she was Aa'isha's aunt and Abu Bakr's sister. Hisham bin al-Waleed brutally dragged them onto the streets. Umar wanted to frighten the other women, who soon fled hither and thither. How often has he behaved harshly in order to carry out his policies without pitying anyone and without fearing an end!

He said to Imam 'Ali (as) and his companions who refused to pay homage to Abu Bakr when they were in the house of Fatima (sa):

"I swear by Him in whose hands my soul is, either you go out to worship or I will burn down the house on you." The Prophet's (s) daughter came out crying and screaming. When she saw what Umar and his men did to Imam 'Ali (as) and az-Zubayr, she said: "How quickly you attacked the family of the Messenger of Allah!"(Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Bd. 1S.134.)

And many of these political situations were as Imam 'Ali (as) had said when he was talking about entrusting Umar with the Caliphate of Abu Bakr:

“...he made it (the caliphate) in a hard country, full of stumbling blocks and which could not be avoided. A man inside him was like a reluctant camel rider, if he shut his snout he would tear his nose, and if he loosened his snout it would get him into trouble. People were plagued by confusion, inconsistency, and objections..."(Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Bd. 1.)

Invention in Shura

When Umar was about to die, he invented the shura to choose the caliph after him. He appointed a committee of six people who pretended that Ali, the Prophet's brother and guardian, was one of them.

Ali, who was the best man after the Prophet,
which was the actual self of the Prophet (s).
Muhammad and Ali were the two eyes of the world;
one was on the right and the other on the left.
Muhammad was the city of knowledge and Ali was its gate.
and whoever wanted to come to town
had to enter through his gate.

O my lord! What was the shura invented for?! Was he (Ali) compared to the first (Abu Bakr) so that he would be compared to them and their tastes?! Certainly not! But “…one man (Sa'd) listened to his anger and the other (Abdurrahman) sided with his relatives (Othman) through this and that.(Referring to the terrible event that Imam 'Ali (as) did not like to mention openly.)

This shura had many dire consequences and dire consequences that caused great harm to Islam. Umar had better not do that in this contradictory shura!

When he (Umar) was stabbed(On Wednesday, four days before the end of Thul Hijja, 23H and he died three days later and was buried on Sunday.)and he was desperate to stay alive, he was asked: 'Would you have named the caliph after you!' He said: 'If Abu Ubayda were alive, I would appoint him caliph because he was the steward of this ummah.(If Abu Ubayda was the steward of this Ummah, then Imam 'Ali (as) was more worthy of the Ummah than himself, as they well knew. Umar himself congratulated him on this on the day of al-Ghadir.)and if Salim the Mawla of Huthayfa were alive I would make him Caliph because he was very sincere in his love for Allah.” (I don't think he forgot his return with the flag after his friend (Abu Bakr) was defeated and sadly returned from Khaybar and I don't think he read the good news from the Prophet (sws) to Imam 'Ali (as ) who achieved the great victory, he also did not forget what the Prophet (s) said that day: "By Allah, tomorrow I will give the flag to a man to whom Allah will grant victory. He loves Allah and His Messenger and Allah and His Messenger love him.”)

His son Abdullah was sent to him, but he refused to make him caliph. The companions left and then returned to him and said:

"O Ameerul Mo'mineen, if you had given a decree!" He said: "I have decided, after saying it for the first time, to entrust your case to a man who is the best among you to guide you to the truth," said Ali (S). They said to him, "What is stopping you?" He said, "I cannot support it (the Caliphate) alive and dead."

Then he said: “You have to stick to it; Ali, Othman, Abdurrahman, Sa'd, az-Zubayr and Talha. You need to consult to choose one of them. If they elect him caliph, they must support and support him.” Then he sent for these six men and said to them: “When I die, let Suhayb lead the people in performing the prayer. You must deliberate for three days, and when the fourth day comes you must have an emir under you.

Then he ordered Abu Talha al-Ansari to select fifty men from the Ansar with their weapons to supervise these six men until they chose one from among them within three days of Umar's death. He ordered Suhayb to lead the prayers during this time. He ordered the six men into a house under the supervision of Abu Talha with his sword and armed men.

He said to Abu Talha:

"If five men agree and the sixth opposes them, you must cut off his head with your sword, and if four of them agree and two disagree, you must behead both, and if each of them has an opinion, the Caliphs must be from Abdurrahman's group and then you must kill those three if they refuse to submit, but if the three days have passed without their consenting to any you must kill all six(The fact that Umar looked down on the blood of these men might encourage the killers of Othman to look down on their blood and it might encourage the Kharijites to look down on the blood of Imam 'Ali (as) and his companions at the time of al-Jamal , al-Basra, an-Nahrawan and Siffeen when they fought him and later killed him and encouraged Yazid to despise the blood of the master of martyrs Imam Husayn (as) in Karbala, for 'Umar was the example especially for these people without Doubt!)and leave the question of the caliphate to the Muslims, who choose whoever they want.” This is Shura's alliance summary.(Shura's allegiance to 'Umar in this way, as we have summarized, is proved by the recurring narrations mentioned by all historians and hadith scholars. See al-Kamil by Ibn al-Atheer, vol. 3, the events of the year 23 of Hijrah, Tareekh al-Umam wel Mulook by Ibn Jareer, the events of 23 AH, Sharh Nahjul Balagha, vol. 1 p.62 and the rest of the history books.)

If Umar was not ready to take over the Caliphate the way he intended, then why did he sneak into what he had fled and arranged in the worst, most damaging and most dangerous way possible?! He chose six men from the entire Ummah and described them with what prevented them from being chosen as caliphs, which we have not mentioned here!(To see how Umar described them, see Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Volume 1, page 72 and you will find wonders!)

So he arranged things in such a way that Othman was elected caliph anyway and without the slightest doubt!(Therefore Imam Ali (as) said: "It (the Caliphate) is gone from us." His uncle al-Abbas said - as in al-Kamil by Ibn al-Atheer and Tareekh al-Umam wel Mulook by Ibn Jareer: ". .. how did you know?" Imam 'Ali (as) said: “Othman has been compared to me… they are with the majority; if two men choose one man and the other two men choose one man, then they will be with Abdurrahman's party and Sa'd will never have anything against his uncle Abdurrahman and Abdurrahman is Othman's relative; they will never disagree. Even if the other two are with me, they won't help me.")

What attitude (which Umar pretended to abstain from) was more than that?! What was the difference between naming Othman openly and narrowing the matter down in a way that would hit him alone and kill the denials?

He would have appointed Othman or anyone else and not put the slave Suhayb over their heads with Abu Talha and his men with drawn swords to kill them (Ali and the others) if they opposed the critical plan Umar intended for them had planned!

Had he entrusted the caliphate to someone he liked, the ummah would not have seen that he despised their blood (the blood of those six men) and would have been indifferent to the bloodshed.(Despite this, Allah forbade bloodshed in the clear verses of the Qur'an and it was forbidden by the prophetic traditions and consensus of the Ummah.)Also, the Ummah would not have seen that he despised them and preferred the slave Suhayb over them when he offered his (Umar's) funeral prayer and the five daily prayers.

As if he wasn't content to despise and dishonor them when he said, "If Abu Ubayda were alive I would make him caliph, and if Salim were alive I would make him caliph" and prefer them to these six men that was the Prophet's brother, keeper and heir, Aaron the Ummah, the judge, the gate of the house of wisdom, the gate of the city of knowledge, and he who had the knowledge of the book; Imam Ali (as).

As for Salim, he was neither Quraish nor Arab. He was a foreigner from Istakhr or Karmad. He was a slave owned by the wife of Abu Huthayfa bin Utba, whose name was Thubayta bint Ya'ar bin Zayd bin Ubayd bin Zayd al-Ansari al-Ousi.(Al-Istee'ab by Ibn Abdul Birr, biographer of Salim.)

The Ummah unanimously agreed, based on court rulings, that the Imamate would not be allowed for someone like Salim,(Many scholars have stated a consensus on this, e.g. B. an-Nawawi in his book Sharh Sahih Muslim, chap. of the Imamate.)then, as Umar said, "If Salim were alive, would I make him caliph?"(They reasoned that 'Umar had said this as ijtihad for him based on his own opinion. Among those who mentioned this excuse was Ibn Abdul Birr in his book al-Istee'ab. Consult this to see that they were indifferent to the legal judgments and clear texts of Allah and His Messenger.)

isSchuracompetition and turmoil among these six men, leading to division and discord among the Muslims as each of these six men believed they were qualified for the Caliphate and equal to the others while before theSchura(from Umar) they didn't think so. In fact, Abdurrahman was a follower of Othman, Sa'd was a follower of Abdurrahman and az-Zubayr was one of the followers of Imam Ali who supported him on the day of Saqeefa.

It was he (az-Zubayr) who drew his sword(Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Abdul Aziz al-Jawhari in his book Kitab as-Saqeefa mentioned a long tradition which is also mentioned by Ibn Abul Hadeed in Sharh Nahjul Balagha, vol. 2, which states: “Umar went to the house of Fatima (s) with a gang including Usayd bin Khudhayr and Salama bin Aslam. Umar said to them (Ali and the companions who were in the house with Ali), "Go out to pay homage." They refused to do so and az-Zubayr approached them with his sword. Umar said, "Arrest the dog!" Salama bin Aslam sprang at him (to az-Zubayr) and took the sword from his hand and threw it against the wall...")He defended Imam 'Ali (as) and he was one of the few who accompanied Fatima (sa) to her grave and prayed for her where she was buried in the darkness of the night(Imam 'Ali (as) led his few companions to perform the funeral prayer for Fatima (saw) and Abu Bakr was not authorized (or even informed) to perform the prayer for them. See Sahih of al-Bukhari, Vol. 2, p. 39 and Sahih of Muslim, Vol. 2, p. 72.)by the will of Fatima (sa) himself and it was he who said during the reign of Umar: "By Allah, if Umar dies, I will worship Ali."(Umar once said of the minbar in a long speech he made: "...I was informed that one of you said: 'By Allah, when Umar dies, I will worship such and such.' Let no one err when he says something like that. By Allah, worshiping Abu Bakr was a mistake... but Allah saved (the Ummah) from his harm...” See Sahih of al-Bukhari, Vol. 4, p. 119. Al-Qastalani said in his book Irshad as-Sari , when explaining this tradition that az-Zubayr bin al-Awwam used to say: "If 'Umar dies, I will pay homage to Ali. The homage to Abu Bakr was a slip, but it was done.” This saying reached 'Umar, who became very angry and then gave this speech. This is what all the scholars who explained Sahih from al-Bukhari mentioned in their books.)but the Shura made him yearn for the Caliphate and so he separated from 'Ali (as) like the others did. He went to fight Imam 'Ali (as) in the battle of al-Jamal (the camel).

Abdurrahman bin Ouff himself regretted what he had done when he preferred Othman on the issue of the caliphate and then broke up with him and tried his best to depose him from the caliphate but was to no avail. And the people knew exactly what Talha and az-Zubayr had done to turn the people against Othman, so Aa'isha joined them to help Talha and hope that the Caliphate could return to Taym.(Time was the tribe of Abu Bakr, the father of Aa'isha.)She used to say:"Kill Na'thal (meaning Othman) because he didn't believe!"(All historians mentioned that she incited people against Othman. One of her contemporaries accused her of reciting the following lines of poetry:The beginning is yours and the vicissitudes of time are yours,The storm is yours and the rain is yours.You gave orders to kill the Emir and you told us he didn't believe you!See al-Kamil by Ibn al-Atheer, volume 3, page 8.)

These and their followers activated their opposition to Othman to the point of encouraging the people of Medina and other countries to rise up against him and then kill him. When Othman was killed and the people paid homage to Imam 'Ali (as) as Caliph, Talha and az-Zubayr were the first to pay homage, but their position in theSchuraraised their greed to the caliphate and made them break their homage to Imam 'Ali (as) and then wage war against him. They (Talha and az-Zubayr) rebelled against Imam 'Ali (as) and Aa'isha joined them hoping that Talha could be the Caliph.

Blood was shed in Basra (the battle of al-Jama), Siffeen and an-Nahrawan, deadly uprisings spread here and there, and bloody wars were fought; all these terrible events were the result of 'UmarSchura, which caused the opponents of Imam 'Ali (as) to compete with him for his right and fight against him to extort that right from him. Besides, that was itSchurawhich prompted Mo'awiya to crane his neck towards the caliphate.(bu Othman mentions in as-Sufyaniyya's book as in Sharh Nahjul Balagha, vol. 1 p.62 Ma'mar bin Sulayman at-Tameemi narrated from his father Sa'eed bin al-Musayyab that Ibn 'Abbas had said: I heard 'Umar saying to the men of the Shura: 'If you cooperate, support each other and if If you become faithful to each other, you will eat (get) it (the Caliphate), you and your descendants, but if you envy, disagree and hate each other, then let Mo'awiya bin Abu Sufyan be the Caliph over you. Mo'awiya was the Emir of Sham appointed by Umar at that time. It is clear that this word was called Mo'awiya and encouraged him to supplicate for the caliphate with all his power and as much deception and cunning as possible. As the fate of the Caliphate was in the hands of Othman after Umar, it meant that it would be in the hands of Mo'awiya after Othman; Hence Umar organized the Shura in a way that would eventually bring the Caliphate to Othman as we have said. In summary, before facing his fate, Othman had five people tricked into competing and fighting with Imam 'Ali (as) in order to extort their legal right. Othman was not content with this until he urged Mo'awiya to stretch his neck to the caliphate, as sensible people understood.)

Then Mo'awiya and each of the men of theSchurathey became insurmountable obstacles in the way of Imam 'Ali (as) who intended to show the truth and restore what had been corrupted.

ÖSchuraof Umar incited the Ummah against Othman(On the day of Shura, Umar said to Othman: “As if I see that the Quraysh have entrusted this matter (the Caliphate) to you, and then you will make Bani Umayya (the Umayyads) and Bani Ma'eet on the necks of the people and you prefer them to others with wealth and then a group of arabs will come to you to kill you in your bed. By Allah, if they do it, you will do it, and if you do it, they will do it.” Then Umar grabbed Othman's topknot and said, “If that happens, remember what I said. It will happen." Ibn Abul Hadeed said in Sharh Nahjul Balagha, vol. 1 p.22 after mentioning this tradition: "Our Sheikh Abu Othman mentioned this tradition in his book as-Sufyaniyya and it was mentioned by others when discussing it about Umar's insight spoke." This confirms our claim that Umar intended to open the way for Mo'awiya outside of Othman's Caliphate because he knew that Othman would be killed and then the way for Mo'awiya to reach the Caliphate would be opened Indeed, Othman's own caliphate would bring Mo'awiya to the throne!

The beginning is yours and the vicissitudes of time are yours,
The storm is yours and the rain is yours.

You killed the Emir and told us he didn't believe you!)

and it planted seeds which took root and grew after the death of Othman, which was an opportunity seized by the people fighting against Imam 'Ali (as) in al-Jamal, Siffin and an-Nahrawan.

How strange and wonderful was Umar's command! He commanded the six men he had appointedSchuraso that one of them would be elected caliph after him, to be killed if they did not fulfill his order before the end of the third day after his death !!!

There! Could we believe that it was permissible for him (Umar) to kill those six men or one of them just because he delayed fulfilling his command after the third day of his death?!
But in fact he had orders to kill her as long as he was comfortable with it and comfortable with it. He commanded Abu Talha al-Ansari and his men with this order and requested them and Suhayb to carry it out.

Muslims saw and heard
But none denied or felt pain!

That was Umar's greatest insistence. He went to extremes in his exaggeration! Knowing the position of these six men better than any of the Companions, he then testified that the Prophet (sws) died while he was pleased with them.

Among the six was one who was a brother of the Prophet (s) and who was to the Prophet (s) as Aaron was to Moses, but he was not a prophet. He was the vizier and guardian of the Prophet (sws). He was the father of two grandsons of the Prophet (sws). He was the hero of Badr, Uhud and Hunayn and it was he who had the knowledge of the book.

Umar better avoid exposing this big man and the rest of the six to this danger and meanness and shame! He could not entrust the matter to anyone and let the Muslims choose whomever they wanted, and then he would sincerely say, "I cannot take this alive and dead."

Or he could openly appoint Othman as caliph, as Abu Bakr had called him (Umar) before, and so he would be open about what he was about to do, without deceit or subterfuge, for he had arranged the Shura issue in a way which would definitely lead to the Caliphate of Othman. Umar did not prefer Abdurrahman to the other five unless he knew it would affect matters and he knew Sa'd would not mind Abdurrahman.

People knew this trick of Umar's, although he thought he had blindsided the matter and said, "I can't take him dead and alive."

What would the Muslims think if the Prophet (sws) heard Umar ordering Abu Talha to say to him: "If five men agree and the sixth opposes them, you should cut off his head with your sword and if four of them agreed and two refused you should behead them both and if each of them had an opinion the caliph should be of abdurrahman's party and then you should kill those three if they refused to submit but if the three days passed while they said goodbye you haven't settled on one yet you must kill all six"? O Muslims, be liberal in your opinions and say what you think! We are from Allah and to Him we will return!

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