Learn about the different iboga plants that contain ibogaine (2023)


Third Wave June 27, 2019

Learn about the different iboga plants that contain ibogaine (1)

It's no secret that the tropical jungles of South America and Africa are home to thousands of species of therapeutic plants, including several psychoactive species. For example, the Apocynaceae plant family, also known as dogbane, has over 4,600 known plant species in these tropical areas. Within this vast family are three closely related species, all in the physical form of small trees or shrubs, which possess the psychoactive properties of the indole alkaloid.ibogaine. These types areTabernanthe iboga, Voacanga africana e Tabernaemontana undulata.

The composition of the iboga plant and the content of active substances

The tabernacle thanks, or the iboga plant, is a small shrub common in the lowland rainforests of the Congo Basin. The plant contains most of its alkaloids in the root bark, with 80% of its alkaloid composition ibogaine.

Voacanga Africanait is also native to tropical areas across Africa.Voacanga Africanacontains a very low percentage of ibogaine, but also contains vocacamine and voacamine, which are alkaloids with psychoactive properties very similar to ibogaine. In this plant species, alkaloids are found mainly in the seeds and root bark.

tabernaemontana undulata, also known as "Becchete" or "Sananga", is a species of spurge that grows in the Amazon rainforest. it's very similarThe tabernacle thanksand contains the alkaloid ibogaine in its root bark.

Traditional uses and concentrations

All of these ibogaine-containing plants seem to have different properties and have been adopted by various cultures in different ways.

Iboga tabernacle

in the manufacture ofThe tabernacle thanks, the user scrapes the bark off the root and then dries it to a powder where it can be swallowed or brewed into a tea. The dosage of the iboga plant is entirely up to the user and depends on the type of iboga experience he is looking for. in low doses,T. Ibogaused as a stimulant to maintain energy levels. In higher doses, it becomes a powerful hallucinogen and can be used therapeutically to treat addiction. The dose for therapeutic use is usually around 5-8 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. It is reported that it is best to take several small doses one hour apart to accustom the body to the strength of the drug.

The psychoactivity of the iboga plant was first discovered by the Pygmy tribe of Central Africa. It was then passed down to practicing Bwiti tribes in Gabon and Cameroon. Traditional healers of the Mitsogo Bwiti spiritual tradition usedThe tabernacle thanksas a tool to communicate with ancestors and spirits. The entire tribe consumed the iboga plant in small doses for its stimulant effects and for various medical ailments such as fever, abdominal pain, liver disease, impotence, mental illness and addiction. Only the aspiring healer or "Ndzi eboka" (iboga eater) would take large hallucinogenic doses. This would place them in a 'waking dream' where the initiate would be contacted by the ancestors and given first-hand Bwiti experiences.

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Voacanga Africana

Due to the fact thatvoacanga africanaThe seeds have higher levels of these alkaloids, traditionally used for hallucinogenic experiences and spiritual ceremonies. That onevoacanga africanaThe root bark contains a smaller dose and therefore only causes stimulating effects that last for several hours - without hallucinations.voacanga africanaRoot bark dosage is about 10 to 15 grams of root bark or powder, which can be brewed as a tea or ingested. That onevoacanga africanaThe seeds can be chewed or swallowed, and the average dose ranges from eight to fifty seeds, depending on the intended intensity of the trip.

voacanga africanaMedicinal uses range from stimulant to aphrodisiac to psychedelic and can even be used as a poison.voacangaThe plants have been used to treat leprosy, diarrhea and seizures in children. Indigenous tribes in Africa used smaller doses of the root bark for hunting as it gave them more energy and focus.

tabernaemontana undulata

There is little current research or dosage recommendations for this particular plant, but traditionally it was used by Brazilian and Peruvian indigenous tribes. The Matis tribe, an indigenous group active in western Brazil, is preparing thetabernaemontana undulataProcess the root bark into a liquid and administer it to the eye to add "deeper texture and dimension" to the environment and help them locate animals while hunting. These effects last for long periods of “days or weeks”. Like any low dose plant containing ibogaine, it also acts as a stimulant. The Matses tribe, another Amazonian tribe, used the plant in a similar way, but also took a stronger dose orally to get more of the hallucinogenic "visions".

Modern treatment and therapy with the iboga plant

Ibogaine has been the subject of continuous research in Western medicine today since the early 1900's. In 1901, the two scientists Dybowsky and Landrin successfully isolated a crystallized alkaloid fromThe tabernacle thanksplant and named it ibogaine. They researched it as a stimulant and it was recommended for certain central nervous system disorders. Research stalled until the 1930s, when Raymond-Hamet, a French botanist, began his 22-year study of the drug. At the same time, France began to sell the drug,Lambing, which contained about 8 milligrams of ibogaine and was sold as an anti-fatigue stimulant. In 1966, the drug was discontinued and then banned.

The current wave of interest in the psychoactive effects of ibogaine and its resident plantsThe tabernacle thanks,voacanga africana, etabernaemontana undulata, focused primarily on its therapeutic applications in addiction treatment and psychotherapy. People with substance abuse issues have found that larger doses of ibogaine in a therapeutic setting can significantly reduce opiate withdrawal and temporarily eliminate substance-related cravings. Currently, there are between 75 and 100 ibogaine therapeutic clinics worldwide. MAPS, the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, completed two observational studies on the long-term effects of ibogaine treatment in opioid dependence disorders in Mexico and New Zealand. These studies add to the growing literature on ibogaine as a treatment for drug addiction. Current research is very promising and these plants are being increasingly recognized as drugs with great potential.

legally foundIboga Retreat Centers for Addictions or Personal Growth, see Third Wave's verified directory of global providers.


1) Brown, T.K., & Alper, K. (2017). Treatment of opioid use disorders with ibogaine: results of detoxification and drug use.Das American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 44(1), 24-36. doi:10.1080/00952990.2017.1320802. Retrieved from: https://tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00952990.2017.1320802#

2) Noller, G.E., Frampton, C.M., & Yazar-Klosinski, B. (2017). Outcomes of ibogaine treatment on opioid dependence from a twelve-month follow-up observational study.Das American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 44(1), 37-46. doi:10.1080/00952990.2017.1310218. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00952990.2017.1310218#

3) Link to Ibogaine Therapy Referral Center: http://www.ibogainereferralnetwork.com/

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What plants contain ibogaine? ›

Ibogaine is a naturally occurring psychoactive substance found in plants in the family Apocynaceae such as Tabernanthe iboga, Voacanga africana, and Tabernaemontana undulata. It is a psychedelic with dissociative properties.

Is iboga and ibogaine the same? ›

Ibogaine is a naturally occurring psychoactive substance extracted from the roots of a plant (shrub) called Iboga. Iboga (Tabernanthe iboga) is classified as a member of the Apocynaceae family. This is the richest source for Ibogaine, an indole alkaloid.

What type of drug is iboga? ›

Ibogaine is a naturally occurring, psychoactive indole alkaloid derived from the root bark of the African shrub Tabernanthe iboga. In West Central Afrika, low dosages of Tabernanthe iboga extracts have been employed by indigenous people against fatigue, hunger and thirst.

What is the importance of iboga? ›

Ibogaine plays a significant role among tribal cultures. Ibogaine, in small amount, causes reduction of hunger, thirst and exhaustion. In bigger amount, however, it can cause intensive visions.

What is iboga in english? ›

Iboga (Tabernanthe iboga) is a shrub that is used for ritual and ceremonial purposes in some African cultures. It has hallucinogenic effects. Iboga contains chemicals that can cause brain stimulation. The root bark of the plant contains a chemical called ibogaine.

Does ibogaine increase dopamine? ›

Ibogaine blocks uptake of both dopamine and serotonin, and binds to cocaine site of serotonin transporter. It prevents cocaine-induced increase in serotonin levels in the brain [287]. Ibogaine also reduces the release of dopamine induced by nicotine, cocaine, and morphine [287,288].

What is the hallucinogenic African root? ›

Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid found in the roots of an exotic rainforest shrub native to West Africa called Tabernanthe iboga [1]. Ibogaine is a hallucinogen which has gained attention due to its use in the treatment of opioid addiction.

How does ibogaine work for addiction? ›

Ibogaine takes the hunger away by taking receptors back to their pre-heroin state. Called an “addiction interrupter,” Ibogaine simply interrupts the chemical addiction, so it removes withdrawal and craving symptoms.

What is the scientific name for ibogaine? ›

Ibogaine (12-methoxyibogamine, NIH 10567, Endabuse) is one of the psychoactive indole alkaloids found in the West African shrub,Tabernanthe iboga.

What effect does ibogaine have on the heart? ›

Dangerous clinical effects attributed to ibogaine that have been reported include fatal arrhythmias, seizures, and sudden death from unexplained causes [Alper et al.

Where is iboga found? ›

Iboga is a shrub indigenous to central west Africa, especially Gabon, Cameroon and Congo. The shrub grows up to 1.5–2 m in height, has yellowish or pinkish flowers, and produces sweet pulpy fruits without any psychoactive alkaloids.

What receptors does ibogaine bind to? ›

Both ibogaine and noribogaine bind to kappa opioid and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and to serotonin uptake sites; ibogaine also binds to sigma-2 and nicotinic receptors.

Is iboga a tree? ›

The Iboga tree is central to the Bwiti spiritual practices in West-Central Africa, mainly Gabon, Cameroon and the Republic of the Congo, where the alkaloid-containing roots or bark are used in various ceremonies to create a near-death experience.

How is ibogaine extracted? ›

In particular, ibogaine can be obtained either by a low yielding direct isolation from Tabernanthe iboga or using a semi-synthetic procedure from voacangine, an iboga alkaloid occurring in a higher yield in the root bark of Voacanga africana.

What is the use of iboga in Africa? ›

Ibogaine is a naturally occurring indole alkaloid found in the roots of the African rain forest shrubTabernanthe iboga. For many centuries, iboga has been ingested by the indigenous peoples of western Africa as a remedy for fatigue, hunger, and thirst and as a sacrament in religious ceremonies.

How many alkaloids are in iboga? ›

There are hundreds of iboga alkaloids, but the compounds shown in Figure 1 represent some of the most commonly reported in natural product isolation and total synthesis literature.

What drug increases the level of dopamine in the brain? ›

Methylphenidate works in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by increasing levels of dopamine in children's brains, according to a study reported in the Journal of Neuroscience (2001;21:121).

What plant increases dopamine? ›

Dopamine is found at high concentrations in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants, the spathes of Araceae inflorescences, as well as the pulp of yellow banana (Musa acuminata), red banana (Musa sapientum), plantain (Plantago major) and fuerte avocado (Persea americana). The role of dopamine in plants is poorly documented.

How do you drastically increase dopamine? ›

Getting enough sleep, exercising, listening to music, meditating, and spending time in the sun can all boost dopamine levels. Overall, a balanced diet and lifestyle can go a long way in increasing your body's natural production of dopamine and helping your brain function at its best.

What foods are hallucinogenic? ›

Okay, here's the list:
  • Chile Peppers. The good Dr. ...
  • Nutmeg. This might seem like an old wives' tale (or an old bored teenager's tale, to be precise), but nutmeg is actually psychoactive, in the right doses. ...
  • Fish. But not just any fish--we're talking premium sea bream. ...
  • Rye Bread. Well, moldy rye bread. ...
  • Caffeine.
Jan 10, 2013

Is fungi a hallucinogen? ›

Magic mushrooms (psychoactive fungi) that grow in the United States, Mexico, South America, and many other parts of the world, contain psilocybin and psilocin, which are hallucinogens and are Class I controlled substances. Magic mushrooms can be eaten raw, cooked with food, or dried, and then consumed.

What is the root word of hallucinogen? ›

The word hallucinogen is derived from the word hallucination. The term hallucinate dates back to around 1595–1605, and is derived from the Latin hallūcinātus, the past participle of (h)allūcināri, meaning "to wander in the mind."

What is the shrub for addiction? ›

Ibogaine is a psychedelic substance found in iboga, a Western African shrub. Historically it has been used in healing ceremonies and initiation rituals in the Bwiti religion in West Africa. Today, some people claim it can be used as a treatment for opiate addiction.

Does ibogaine work on methadone? ›

Each administration of ibogaine attenuated the withdrawal symptoms for several hours, and reduced the tolerance to methadone until all signs of withdrawal symptoms disappeared at the end of the treatment. No serious adverse effects were observed, and at no point did the QTc measures reach clinically significant scores.

Does ibogaine help with anxiety? ›

Ibogaine treatment is reported to alleviate a spectrum of mood and anxiety symptoms2528 and is associated with self-reported improvements in cognitive functioning in individuals with substance use disorders.

What is the efficacy of ibogaine? ›

Most (80%) indicated that ibogaine eliminated or drastically reduced withdrawal symptoms. Fifty percent reported that ibogaine reduced opioid craving, some (25%) reporting a reduction in craving lasting at least 3 months.

Is ibogaine a Schedule 1 drug? ›

Ibogaine is classified as a Schedule I-controlled substance in the United States, and is not approved there for addiction treatment (or any other therapeutic use) because of its hallucinogenic, neurotoxic, and cardiovascular side effects, as well as the scarcity of safety and efficacy data in human subjects.

What effect does ibogaine have on opioid receptors? ›

These results suggest that ibogaine is an agonist at the mu opioid receptor with a Ki value of about 130 nM, potentially explaining ibogaine's antinociceptive effects as well as its reported reduction of opioid withdrawal symptoms and attenuation of drug seeking behavior.

What are the two opioid receptors? ›

To date, five types of opioid receptors have been discovered-mu receptor (MOR), kappa receptor (KOR), delta receptor (DOR), nociception receptor (NOR) and zeta receptor (ZOR).

What molecules activate opioid receptors? ›

Opioid receptors are regulated by arrestin-2 and arrestin-3 binding (also called β-arrestin 1 and β-arrestin 2, respectively) and this interaction depends on the model system and agonist treatment procedure.

How are drugs extracted from plants? ›

A simple first step can be grinding a plant in a mortar, adding a liquid and filtering to separate the soluble from insoluble. Further isolation can be done using various chromatography techniques. These techniques are based on the principal that dissolved compounds pass through a filter at different speeds.

What is the African hallucinogenic root? ›

Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid found in the roots of an exotic rainforest shrub native to West Africa called Tabernanthe iboga [1]. Ibogaine is a hallucinogen which has gained attention due to its use in the treatment of opioid addiction.

Is Ibogaine toxic? ›

Context: Ibogaine is a psychoactive indole alkaloid found in the African rainforest shrub Tabernanthe Iboga. It is unlicensed but used in the treatment of drug and alcohol addiction. However, reports of ibogaine's toxicity are cause for concern.

Is iboga a herb? ›

Tabernanthe iboga (iboga) is an evergreen rainforest shrub native to Central Africa.
Tabernanthe iboga.
Species:T. iboga
Binomial name
9 more rows

What is the African equivalent of ayahuasca? ›

You might also hear about iboga. This shrub grows throughout many countries in Africa, including Gabon, Cameroon and Guinea. Like ayahuasca, it's commonly used in ceremonial practices.

Which of the following plants produce hallucinogenic properties? ›

The other flowers like Hyoscyamus niger, Atropa belladonna, Fly Agaric, Datura and morning glory have hallucinogenic properties.

What are hallucinogenic plants in Kenya? ›

Catha edulis, commonly known as khat, is a psychostimulant plant used by over 10 million people daily, mainly in eastern Africa and the Middle East [1]. Historically, khat was recognized as a ceremonial plant in Kenya, chewed primarily by older men during special social gatherings [2].

Is ibogaine a scheduled drug? ›

Ibogaine is classified as a Schedule I-controlled substance in the United States, and is not approved there for addiction treatment (or any other therapeutic use) because of its hallucinogenic, neurotoxic, and cardiovascular side effects, as well as the scarcity of safety and efficacy data in human subjects.

Where did Iboga originate? ›

Psychedelic Neuroscience

Iboga is a shrub indigenous to central west Africa, especially Gabon, Cameroon and Congo.


1. Microdosing Iboga & Ibogaine – a Prototype Tool for Consciousness Hacking | Molecular Masterclass
(Microdose | Psychedelics Business Guide)
2. Ibogaine- African Drug That Cures Opioid Addiction: Iboga Plant, Psychedelic Effects & Dangers
(Whiteboard Biology)
3. Magic Plant Iboga - Rituals and Therapy - Online Seminar Series
(Max Planck Chemical Ecology)
4. The Case for Ibogaine | Thomas Kingsley Brown | TEDxVeniceBeach
(TEDx Talks)
5. Iboga and personal transformation - and MD's inquiry
(Psychedelic Association of Canada)
6. Plant Medicine Healing: Ayahuasca vs Ibogaine with Danielle Thompson
(American gypC)


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